Shrine atop Pine Mountain,
Louella Josephine Taylor,
in THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:
They won't tell you this at Sewanee like they told us, but our Bishop-General
died the only way a man should die- fighting his enemies.
enemies and our enemies are the same; so, of course, he died for us.
He was the only Chancellor and President of the Board of Trustees of The
University of the South who was killed while fighting for the same freedoms
that inspired his founding Sewanee for us.
With passionate intensity he kept himself connected to our lives up at Sewanee.
When his memory visited, we found ourselves asking, "What splendid arousal
of natural instinct do I now feel in my heart, what arising of courage to meet
the perils of this new era? What bright light is this that shows us the path
and helps us make the turn? What rising voice of conscience is this that tells
us of the darkening future?'
Those were the questions leading to the mandate of our new redemption- our
unvanquished and distinctive identity. Who we were at Sewanee proved that his
death was not in vain.
Memory, as simple a thing as it is, is a vital prayer, a ritual of righteousness.
His dignified memory was our Higher Law of the best kind truth, fairness, justice,
ethics, and morality, and of our local honor and particular secrets, because
he died for Christ's special love for us in that one place. His work emphasized
that one special community. Standing strong with him was our strong stand for
our heroic ancestors who loved our liberty and freedom more than they loved
life itself. An invocation such as that will last forever.
Plenty of news comes our way about what's going on in Sewanee these days. New
Orleans has a magnetic pull upon the Sewanee aura. We can see it and read it
like blue-eyed Swedes can see and read their borealis. Even though
some up there don't want us to know, they can't stop us from knowing, and we
make the right judgments about the news.
There are no valid sustainability initiatives which begin without him, because
anything that doesn't honor him at Sewanee puts unique culture in peril and
isn't worth sustaining. Intolerance of his grandeur should be unwelcome up
there, just like we won't allow it down here.
At Sewanee, we thrived on gratitude, and we scorned all else, as we should
He did as he ought to have done, and so must we do so now, especially you two.
Gratitude is our first obligation, and failure to meet that responsibility
divides all others away from true Domainians.
When did you two young gentlemen say you were due back up the Mountain? I have
something I want you to take back to Sewanee with you when you go.
Pine Mountain Salient
"Our Southern Golgotha"
Bishop-General Leonidas Polk atop Pine Mountain, June 14,1864;
by Wilbur G. Kurtz, 1966, courtesy of the Secrist Museum.
Pine Mountain under Federal artillery attack,
Frank Leslie's Illustrated's THE SOLIDER IN OUR CIVIL
"Rebel General Polk Killed."
-Headline in the St. Louis Republican as reprinted in the Cincinnati
Thursday morning, June 23, 1864
"Thus, died on of the grandest, noblest, and bravest Generals of the war.
He was respected, loved and mourned by the whole army and country."
-T.J. Walker (ca. 1844-1920), REMINISCENCES OF THE CIVIL
Georgia Historical Commission marker 033-20 on Burnt Hickory Road, Kennesaw,
LEONIDAS POLK'S HEADQUARTERS
G.W. Hardage house; June 10-14,
1864. After withdrawing his corps from Lost Mtn.
June 9, Polk's H'dq'rs. were at the John Kirk house
1 mi. W. on this rd. June 10, h'dq'rs. were moved
to Hardage house. Sun. June 12, The Bishop-General
read the church service (Episcopal) for his staff,
escort, and the Hardage family. June 14, Polk rode
with Johnston, Hardee & others to Pine Mtn.
to inspect Bate's line at that advanced outpost. While
there, Polk was killed by a Federal shell.
of their Corps commanders (Bishop Polk) had been instantly
killed by a shell on the summit of Pine Mountain, and
the insurgent armies had suffered fearful losses in that
-Benson J. Lossing, L.L.D., A HISTORY OF THE CIVIL
WAR 1861-1865 AND THE CAUSES THAT LED UP TO THAT GREAT CONFLICT, 1895,
Site of the Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Martyrdom
One Man, Three Leaders, Killed in Action:
First Bishop of Louisiana
Founder & Chancellor of The University
of the South
Lieutenant-General, Confederate Army of Tennessee
Commanding Army of Mississippi
Pine Mountain, Kennesaw
Lt. Gen. Polk with Gen. Joe Johnston and Lt. Gen. William J.Hardee,
both of whom were with Polk on the crest of Pine Mountain;
courtesy of Fred Bentley, Sr., gracious steward of the Leonidas Polk
Commission marker 033-24 on Beaumont Drive, Pine Mountain, Kennesaw, Georgia
(top), and Georgia Historical Commission marker 033-23 on Stilesboro Road,
Kennesaw, Georgia (bottom); marker locations should be swapped- Stilesboro
Road marker should be on Pine Mountain at the entrance to Polk Monument:
10, 1864. The 4th A.C. moved from Mars
Hill Ch. to position along this road facing
S. Toward Pine Mtn. - highest pont between
Lost & Kennesaw Mtns. The 14th A.C.
was on the left: the 20th on the right.
Pine Mtn. was fortified and held as an
outpost of the main Confederate line 1.25
mils S. - the line that extended from Lost
Mtn. to Brushy Mtn. - June 5-15. June 14.
Generals Johnston, Hardee & Polk, while
observing Federal lines from Pine Mtn.,
were fired upon by the 4th and 20th Corps
batteries. Gen. Leonidas Polk was killed
by a shell.
GENERAL LEONIDAS POLK
KILLED AT PINE MOUNTAIN
The wooded know W. was a fortified outpost. 1.25 miles north
of Johnston's intrenched line from Lost to Brush Mountains, June
5-15, 1864. Pine Mountain was held by Bate's Division of Hardee's
A.C., 5th Co. Washington Artillery of N. Orleans & Lt. R.T.
Beauregard's S. Carolina Battery. June 14. While observing Federal
lines with Generals Johnston and Hardee, General Polk was killed
by a shell from a Federal battery- identity of which is not certain.
The outpost was abandoned the next day and withdrawn to the main
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Museum
From THE LAST CHRISTIAN
IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:
After our pilgrimage up to the Polk monument, we visited the museum
at Kennesaw Battlefield. There we were horrified at the picture they
displayed depicting Leonidas Polk in his moment of death. It seemed
prurient, especially when we remembered that we were at a Federal building
and recalled all the oppression and exploitation suffered by the Georgians
during and since the War. It was a distasteful and inappropriate triumphalism-
a real slap in the face. We condemned their offensive and appalling
lack of sensitivity.
Then we received the revelation, as we often do when we most need it.
It came to us suddenly: They were showing Polk in his critical moment
of royal passion.
The manipulated and colluding Romans used thorns, whips, nails, and
a spear to kill our Jesus atop Golgotha. We don't shrink from images
of Christ crucified; we kneel before them as we prayerfully remember
his suffering fatal torture for our eternal salvation.
The Federal Yankees used a cannon and artillery shell to victimize
and kill our mighty Confederate Warrior-Priest atop Pine Mountain.
If they wanted to remind us of the violent crime they committed against
our tragedic and holiest of Southern leaders, then we will welcome
Ilyich Glazunov's Crucify
him! Crucify him!,
1994, at Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow, Russia
John Donne's "LA CORONA," circa
By miracles exceeding power of man,
He faith in some, envy in some begat,
For, what weak spirits admire, ambitious hate:
In both affections many to Him ran.
But O ! the worst are most, they will and can,
Alas ! and do, unto th' Immaculate,
Whose creature Fate is, now prescribe a fate,
Measuring self-life's infinity to span,
Nay to an inch. Lo ! where condemned He
Bears His own cross, with pain, yet by and by
When it bears him, He must bear more and die.
Now Thou art lifted up, draw me to Thee,
And at Thy death giving such liberal dole,
Moist with one drop of Thy blood my dry soul.
Donne (1572 - 1631),"Holy
Spit in my face you Jewes, and pierce my side,
Buffet, and scoffe, scourge, and crucifie mee,
For I have sinn'd, and sinn'd, and onely hee,
Who could do no iniquitie, hath dyed:
But by my death can not be satisfied
My sinnes, which passe the Jewes impiety:
They kill'd once an inglorious man, but I
Crucifie him daily, being now glorified.
Oh let mee then, his strange love still admire:
Kings pardon, but he bore our punishment.
And Jacob came cloth'd in vile harsh attire
But to supplant, and with gainfull intent:
God cloth'd himselfe in vile mans flesh, that so
Hee might be weake enought to suffer woe.
Donne's "The Cross":
SINCE Christ embraced the cross itself, dare I
His image, th' image of His cross, deny?
Would I have profit by the sacrifice,
And dare the chosen altar to despise?
It bore all other sins, but is it fit
That it should bear the sin of scorning it?
Who from the picture would avert his eye,
How would he fly his pains, who there did die ?
From me no pulpit, nor misgrounded law,
Nor scandal taken, shall this cross withdraw,
It shall not, for it cannot; for the loss
Of this cross were to me another cross.
Better were worse, for no affliction,
No cross is so extreme, as to have none.
Who can blot out the cross, with th' instrument
Of God dew'd on me in the Sacrament?
Who can deny me power, and liberty
To stretch mine arms, and mine own cross to be?
Swim, and at every stroke thou art thy cross;
The mast and yard make one, where seas do toss;
Look down, thou spiest out crosses in small things;
Look up, thou seest birds raised on crossed wings;
All the globe's frame, and spheres, is nothing else
But the meridians crossing parallels.
Material crosses then, good physic be,
But yet spiritual have chief dignity.
These for extracted chemic medicine serve,
And cure much better, and as well preserve.
Then are you your own physic, or need none,
When still'd or purged by tribulation;
For when that cross ungrudged unto you sticks,
Then are you to yourself a crucifix.
As perchance carvers do not faces make,
But that away, which hid them there, do take;
Let crosses, so, take what hid Christ in thee,
And be His image, or not His, but He.
But, as oft alchemists do coiners prove,
So may a self-despising get self-love;
And then, as worst surfeits of best meats be,
So is pride, issued from humility,
For 'tis no child, but monster; therefore cross
Your joy in crosses, else, 'tis double loss.
And cross thy senses, else both they and thou
Must perish soon, and to destruction bow.
For if the eye seek good objects, and will take
No cross from bad, we cannot 'scape a snake.
So with harsh, hard, sour, stinking; cross the rest ;
Make them indifferent; call, nothing best.
But most the eye needs crossing, that can roam,
And move; to th' others th' objects must come home.
And cross thy heart; for that in man alone
Pants downwards, and hath palpitation.
Cross those dejections, when it downward tends,
And when it to forbidden heights pretends.
And as the brain through bony walls doth vent
By sutures, which a cross's form present,
So when thy brain works, ere thou utter it,
Cross and correct concupiscence of wit.
Be covetous of crosses; let none fall;
Cross no man else, but cross thyself in all.
Then doth the cross of Christ work faithfully
Within our hearts, when we love harmlessly
That cross's pictures much, and with more care
That cross's children, which our crosses are.
Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Tragedy,
Ophelia, walk you here. Gracious, so please you,
We will bestow ourselves.
Read on this book;
That show of such an exercise may colour
Your loneliness. We are oft to blame in this,-
'Tis too much proved- that with devotion's visage
And pious action we do sugar o'er
The devil himself.
[Aside] O, 'tis too true!
How smart a lash that speech doth
give my conscience!
The harlot's cheek, beautied with plastering art,
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it
Than is my deed to my most painted word:
O heavy burthen!
I hear him coming: let's withdraw, my lord.
KING CLAUDIUS and POLONIUS
To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pith and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action. Soft you now!
The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy orisons
Be all my sins remember'd.
Good my lord,
How does your honour for this many a day?
I humbly thank you; well, well, well.
My lord, I have remembrances of yours,
That I have longed long to re-deliver;
I pray you, now receive them.
It shall be so:
Madness in great ones must not unwatch'd go.
"a boot stamping on a human face"
From George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, 1949:
told you, Winston,'' he said,
''that metaphysics is not
your strong point. The word
you are trying to think of
is solipsism. But you are
mistaken. This is not solipsism.
Collective solipsism, if
you like. But that is a different
thing: in fact, the opposite
thing. All this is a digression,''
he added in a different tone.
''The real power, the power
we have to fight for night
and day, is not power over
things, but over men.'' He
paused, and for a moment
assumed again his air of
a schoolmaster questioning
a promising pupil: ''How
does one man assert his power
over another, Winston?''
thought. ''By making him
suffer,'' he said.
By making him suffer. Obedience
is not enough. Unless he
is suffering, how can you
be sure that he is obeying
your will and not his own?
Power is in inflicting
pain and humiliation. Power
is in tearing human minds
to pieces and putting them
together again in new shapes
of your own choosing. Do
you begin to see, then,
what kind of world we are
creating? It is the exact
opposite of the stupid
hedonistic Utopias that
the old reformers imagined.
A world of fear and treachery
is torment, a world of
trampling and being trampled
upon, a world which will
grow not less but more
merciless as it refines
itself. Progress in our
world will be progress
towards more pain. The
old civilizations claimed
that they were founded
on love or justice. Ours
is founded upon hatred.
In our world there will
be no emotions except fear,
rage, triumph, and self-abasement.
Everything else we shall
destroy everything. Already
we are breaking down the
habits of thought which
have survived from before
the Revolution. We have
cut the links between child
and parent, and between
man and man, and between
man and woman. No one dares
trust a wife or a child
or a friend any longer.
But in the future there
will be no wives and no
friends. Children will
be taken from their mothers
at birth, as one takes
eggs from a hen. The sex instinct
will be eradicated. Procreation
will be an annual formality
like the renewal of a ration
card. We shall abolish
the orgasm. Our neurologists
are at work upon it now.
There will be no loyalty,
except loyalty towards
the Party. There will be
no love, except the love
of Big Brother. There will
be no laughter, except
the laugh of triumph over
a defeated enemy. There
will be no art, no literature,
no science. When we are
omnipotent we shall have
no more need of science.
There will be no distinction
between beauty and ugliness.
There will be no curiosity,
no enjoyment of the process
of life. All competing
pleasures will be destroyed.
But always- do not forget
this, Winston- always there
will be the intoxication
of power, constantly increasing
and constantly growing
subtler. Always, at every
moment, there will be the
thrill of victory, the
sensation of trampling
on an enemy who is helpless.
If you want a picture of
the future, imagine a boot
stamping on a human face-
From https://www.rutherford.org; 5/27/2014:
For those who can read the writing on the wall, it’s
all starting to make sense.
All signs point to the fact that “we the people” have
become enemies of the state: the military drills carried out
in major American cities, the VIPR inspections at train depots
and bus stations, the SWAT team raids on unsuspecting homeowners;
the Black Hawk helicopters patrolling American skies, the massive
ammunition purchases by various federal agencies such as the
Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Education,
the IRS and the Social Security Administration; the government’s
increasing use of involuntary commitment laws to declare individuals
mentally ill and lock them up in psychiatric wards for extended
periods of time.
also the profit-driven
corporate incentive to
jail Americans in private
prisons; the criminalizing
of such relatively innocent
activities as holding Bible
studies in one’s
home or sharing unpasteurized
goat cheese with members
of one’s community;
and the detention facilities,
whether private prisons
or FEMA internment camps,
which have already been
built and are waiting to
lock up the troublemakers.
Indeed, it’s no longer a question of whether the
government will lock up Americans for innocuous behavior
"We don't have to choose between a future of spiraling debt and one where
we forfeit investments in our people and our country," [Barak Obama] said. "To
meet our fiscal challenge, we will need to make reforms. We will all need to
make sacrifices. But we do not have to sacrifice the America we believe in. And
as long as I'm president, we won't."
Allen Mendenhall, "A Second Look," Chronicles,
"We have reached a terrifying moment when
the Department of Defense seeks to brainwash our troops into
believing that Catholics and evangelical Christians are, like
those whoh rever the Founding Fathers, potential terrorists;
when teh Federal Communications Commission seeks to control
which stories newsrooms may run; when the Transportation Security
Administration daily collects nude photographs of American
citizens; when teh Internal Revenue Service targest targets
certain groups because of their politcal beliefs; when teh
National Security Agency gathers untold amounts of data
on Americans through mass surveillance programs; when the president
declares his supremacy over the othe other branches of
government; and when teh Supreme Court issues opinons that
no longer have anything to do with the Constitution it allegedly
upholds. What other practical, constitutional remedies are
we left besides an Article V conventino? True, and Article
V convention may not work, but I've heard no better options,
except, perhaps, secession and nullificaiton, both of which
seem equallyunlikely to succeed in the current climate.
One the most important issue, I agree with Professor Quirk:
the essential problem isn't structural but cultural. No government,
constution, orlaw can save a country that isn't virtuous.
"willing to sacrifice"
Michelle Obama, from http://www.breitbart.com/Big-Government/2013/11/26/Michelle-Obama-2008-Barack-Will-Make-Us-Sacrifice-for-Health-Care;
It's going to cost us something as a society to say, 'We can't
tolerate millions of people uninsured. We can't tolerate it.'
But in order for all of us to get a little bit more, a whole
bunch of us are going to have to give up a little something
that we have. And that's not, sort of, what we've been taught…
so if you have a leader
like Barack, who is saying,
'Yes, we know how much
this is gonna cost--it's
gonna cost us billions,
but we can do it,' what
are we willing to sacrifice
to make that sure we have
the resources to do it?…
that's--that's the mindset
that has to change, with
what does it mean to live
in a society, what does
it mean to be an American,
and what kind of sacrifice
do we all have to make?...
Barack says: 'We all have
the work to do,' you know.
It's not just about changing
the person in the White
House, but it's about changing
out mindset, what we're
willing to sacrifice, even
our own individual selves.
"change our traditions"
"We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States
-Barack Obama, October 30, 2008
“We are going to have to change our conversation; we’re going to
have to change our traditions, our history; we’re going to have to move
into a different place as a nation.”
-Michelle Obama, May 14, 2008
As many as 227 million Americans may be compelled to disclose
intimate details of their families and financial lives -- including
their Social Security numbers -- in a new national database
being assembled by two federal agencies.
Federal Housing Finance
Agency and the Consumer
Financial Protection Bureau
posted an April 16 Federal
Register notice of an expansion
of their joint National
Mortgage Database Program
to include personally identifiable
information that reveals
actual users, a reversal
of previously stated policy.
The database will also encompass a mortgage holder’s
entire credit history, including delinquent payments, late
payments, minimum payments, high account balances and credit
scores, according to the notice.
two agencies will also
demographic data,” including
racial and ethnic data,
gender, marital status,
religion, education, employment
history, military status,
the number of wage earners
and a family’s total
wealth and assets.
Cordray in his testimony told the House, "We’re
making every effort to be very careful" but he could not
promise there would never be a data breach.
said the hacker threat
is real. "If someone
were to breach that system,
they could very easily
said she doubts the government
can protect the data. “We’re
essentially concerned that
these government systems
don’t have the necessary
precautions to make sure
that individual consumers
are identified through
the database,” she
theft of government and
commercial data is a major
concern for federal officials.
Indictments were made public
last week for five Chinese
military members who allegedly
hacked into the computer
systems of six American
December report from the
Office on breaches containing
information from federal
databases shows unlawful
data breaches have doubled,
from 15,140 reported incidents
in 2009 to 22,156 in 2012.
When a District Super tells concerned parents that Rigor is
about higher standards and provides the metaphor that you cannot
turn up the temperature suddenly on an oven from 350 to 550
without burning the turkey and leaving it frozen on the inside,
I think that explanation deserves a Pinocchio award. That example
of rigor may make parents feel better about upcoming higher
than average failure rates on the new state Common Core math
assessments, but it does not accurately reflect the nature
of the problem. Rigor is about what a student feels, perceives,
and does when there is no single correct answer or there are
insufficient facts stated to reach a definitive conclusion
or the asked about material has never been taught. It provides
superb behavioral science data on likely future actions and
it primes students to be willing to act in the face of uncertainty.
Just what people with visions of transforming and then redesigning
societies and societies around Big Data need from a compliant,
When the “challenge for educators” now is announced
to be creating “settings that can help young people develop
as thoughtful, caring, compassionate, and responsible citizens,” the
vision of citizenry is to be Change Agents for Transformation.
That is also blatantly a view of education that is primarily
focused on Psychosocial Development, not knowledge as academic
content. Students are to be deliberately primed, at a deep
level, to be unwilling to accept the world as it now exists.
Jumping to the punch line, FHAO intentionally uses the horrors
of the Holocaust and Legal Segregation by race in the US to
justify a belief that economic, redistributive, justice, if
desired by a majority of current voters, is a perfectly legitimate
demand binding everyone. Resistance then becomes akin to the
racism that surrounded the Little Rock 9 trying to integrate
Arkansas schools in the 50s. FHAO is the perfect accompaniment
to the communitarian focus we have already located in the required
Positive School Climate for all K-12 schools and lurking oddly
in the definition of what it means to be Career Ready under
the Common Core. FHAO early on specifically instructs students:
are not built of friends,
or groups of friends, or
of people with similar
styles and tastes, or even
of people who like and
understand each other.
They are built of people
who feel they are part
of something that is bigger
than themselves: a shared
goal or enterprise [hence
all the hype on collaboration
now]…To build a community
requires only the ability
to see value in others;
to look at them and see
a potential partner in
can also be defined in
terms of a ‘universe
of obligation’ –a
group of individuals or
groups ‘toward whom
obligations are owed, to
whom rules apply, and whose
injuries call for amends.”
Should students be taught that “Built into each individual’s
experience must be an occasion for giving, a task of humanity,
an act of sharing and sacrifice”?
that really Student Achievement?
Growth? Should taxpayer-funded
and profs really be making
these decisions in a free
is the disputed nature
of freedom itself in the
21st Century the real question?
The National Security Agency is harvesting huge numbers of
images of people from communications that it intercepts through
its global surveillance operations for use in sophisticated
facial recognition programs, according to top-secret documents.
spy agency’s reliance
on facial recognition technology
has grown significantly
over the last four years
as the agency has turned
to new software to exploit
the flood of images included
in emails, text messages,
social media, videoconferences
and other communications,
the N.S.A. documents reveal.
Agency officials believe
that technological advances
could revolutionize the
way that the N.S.A. finds
intelligence targets around
the world, the documents
show. The agency’s
ambitions for this highly
sensitive ability and the
scale of its effort have
not previously been disclosed.
agency intercepts “millions
of images per day” — including
about 55,000 “facial
recognition quality images” — which
translate into “tremendous
untapped potential,” according
to 2011 documents obtained
from the former agency
contractor Edward J. Snowden.
While once focused on written
and oral communications,
the N.S.A. now considers
facial images, fingerprints
and other identifiers just
as important to its mission
of tracking suspected terrorists
and other intelligence
targets, the documents
"it's not really yours"
Most of our young people don’t know a heck of a lot,
if anything, about these things, but they certainly know about
Harriet Tubman and Rosa Parks, so they’ve actually got
a highly manipulated view of history, a kind of programmed
narrative of American shame, and the reason for that is that
they are being prepared for a political and financial shakedown.
So in other words, if you want the federal government to come
to Americans and take their stuff, and you want to prevent
Americans from objecting, you’ve got to try to convince
them that their stuff isn’t theirs in the first place:
that it’s been stolen, that their ancestors stole it,
that if history had been fair, they wouldn’t have this
big house and this nice couch and this big-screen TV and this
nice car. So the government has every right to confiscate it
because it’s not really yours.
Young people willingly give-up their privacy on Google and
Facebook because they have not read George Orwell’s ‘1984’ unlike
previous generations, a leading academic has warned.
Sharkey, professor of artificial
intelligence and robotics
at Sheffield University,
said that large corporations
were hovering up private
information and modern
generations did not realize
it was wrong.
said that older people
who had grown up reading
George Orwell’s 1984
about ‘Big Brother
technology and ‘ authoritarianism’,
were in a better position
to resist the creeping
erosion of privacy.
Sharkey, speaking at Cheltenham
Science Festival, said: “I’m
65, I don’t want
to be targeted. I am very
uncomfortable with it.
It seems to me that our
privacy is gradually being
violated and eroded without
am part of the generation
which all read 1984 – I
think we are less happy
about giving up our privacy.
the younger generation
aren’t really thinking
about it. The services
that Google and Facebook
give us are so good that
people are willing to trade
off their privacy for them.
If you grow up with that,
that is what you know to
commentators have become
that Google has recently
purchased a collection
of artificial intelligence
and robotics companies.
fear it will give the technology
giant unlimited access
to private information.
recently paid £1.9billion
for Nest Labs, a firm which
heating systems, allowing
people to control their
thermostats from afar.
supporters ague that having
greater control over home
applications can only be
beneficial, others are
worried that it enables
firms to collect data about
energy use and living habits.
also spent £300 million
on Deep-Mind, a British
firm which specialises
in quickly building up
a profile of an individual
based on their internet
said: ‘Google has
a policy where they keep
our entire history. They
know far too much about
the moment it doesn’t
seem harmful. But because
governments can get hold
of this information, they
can monitor you, things
might change quite dramatically.
give away that much information – you
can now take little bits
of data, put in a simple
little algorithm, and it
can put it all together
and build up a big picture
warned that soon Google
would know ‘where
you are all of the time.’
problem with any technology
is that once it goes into
the wild, once it starts
picking up momentum and
getting critical mass,
we have no idea how it
will be used, no idea.
It is quite worrying,” he
keynote address was delivered
by Christine Lagarde, managing
director of the International
Monetary Fund. She quoted
both Karl Marx’s
prediction that capitalism “carried
the seeds of its own destruction,” and
Pope Francis’ characterization
of increasing inequality
as “the root of social
evil.” She came out
against a favorite centrist
reaction to rising inequality—“that
ultimately we should care
about equality of opportunity,
not equality of outcome.” The
problem, Madame Lagarde
said, was that opportunity
could never be equal in
a deeply unequal society.
She called for more progressive
income tax systems and
greater use of property
"little place for dogmatisms and
"a new pattern of social life"
From "Economic, Social, and Political Forces,"
by J. Steele Gow, Jr., Burkart Holzner, and William C. Pendelton,
in THE CHANGING AMERICAN SCHOOL: The Sixty-fifth Yearbook
of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part
II, edited by John I. Goodlad:
This awareness of the many layers of the human problem has
led to a new recognition of the interdependence of the sciences
of man, ranging from the medical fields through psychology
to the social sciences, and of the limitations of each approach
as well as of its contributions. The awareness has been heightened
by the fact that in the last few decades the sciences of man
have acquired a high relevance in all practical matters of
private decisions and public policy. It has become a matter
of common routine, and of great public interest, to take the
pulse of social life not merely through the keeping of vital
statistics but through the detailed and often sophisticated
analysis and monitoring of social-psychological processes,
such as changes in attitudes or motivations . Even the prediction
of the behavior of large populations has become possible with
an amazing degree of accuracy. Thus, aspects of social life
have become matters of public, empirical knowledge, which in
previous periods were entirely hidden from view, or at best
were objects of cloudy, moralistic speculation. This development
illustrates best the dilemmas of our reflective, self-analyzing
culture, in which man knows himself as the decision-making
agent, who thinks of himself as free, and recognizes as well
that he is an object of scientific study and prediction. The
moral issues of such a situation cannot be solved by reference
to the morality of the past. These problems are new and their
solution is a task which only modern man has faced.
On the whole, however, the impact has been less to create "a
nation of sheep" than to make room for a realistic appraisal
of social life and its forces and has provided the climate
in which concerted efforts at social planning and social reform
have been carried out and are being driven forward. Contrary
to the pessimistic appraisals given by some observers of the
American scene, it is now a well-documented fact that, through
the rise of the social sciences, the American intellectual
in particular has come into his own . He, in turn, has used
social science as a fighting weapon, often endangering its
claim to scientific objectivity, in building his new view of
man and society, in the defense of his values of equalitarianism
and liberty, against dogmatism and prejudice, and in the shaping
of public policy.
We have put forth, in this overview, our conviction that there
is emerging a new cultural configuration, a new view of man
and of society, and a new range of "languages" or
symbolic systems for analysis and expression. This new culture
has little place for dogmatisms and certainties. It is built
on the conviction of the centrality of man acting in uncertainty,
and it is creating methodologies rather than metaphysics. It
is intriguing, indeed, that this great transformation can be
seen so clearly in virtually all areas of cultural endeavor
that we may speak of the emergence of a new culture.
The confusion of ideologies has resulted in a great many debates
in which semantics becloud the picture and prevent a realistic
grasp of social change. The central difficulty is just this:
What we are dealing with is a process of fundamental, structural
transformation which, while it preserves important historical
continuities, has introduced a new pattern of social life which
cannot be grasped with the concepts of the past.
In the United States, the transition involves the following
aspects: continued urbanization, with the growth of mammoth
metropolitan agglomerations and changes in the nature of city
life; the growth of complex, and interlocking organizations
in the public and private domains, accompanied by increasingly
organized regulation of social life; greater homogeneity of
the population through a redistribution of wealth, the relative
decline of ethnic stratification, and a decline in the polarization
of the social classes; increasing similarity between the great
regions of America and an enormous increase in the interdependence
of the whole nation in the political, economic, and cultural
fields. All of this has resulted in the development of new
patterns of social stratification which determine the life
chances of individuals and require different kinds of skills
for successful participation in the society, thus affecting
directly every person.
The fact is that massive political forces of the last two decades
have called upon the schools to serve as principal agents of
change for the implementation of national public policies.
The long-running debate as to whether the schools should reflect
or should reshape their society has become largely academic.
The schools have been driven by political forces into the position
of spearheading societal change as that change is embodied
in politically formulated public policy.
Chairman of the Department
of Education at the University
of Tel Aviv, in lecture
sponsored by the Graduate
School of Education, University
of Chicago, July 28, 1965:
In the light of (1) the need of a democratic society for a
functioning equality among the people, (2) the need of a technologically
developing economy for a speedy expansion of "the pool
of ability," and (3) the evidence from research and experience
in different countries that not only cultures and societies
are in process of evolution and change, but that man's potentialities
can be promoted, the task of the educational system and the
psychological service should be altered. Instead of serving
as "gate-keepers," these agencies should: try to
identify, diagnostically, those social and cultural determinants
that set constraints on the appearance and activation of human
potentialities; and conduct a systematic search, experimentally,
for ways to deal with, and promote, their emergence and growth.
Federal tax revenues continue to run at a record pace (in inflation-adjusted
dollars) in fiscal 2014, as the federal government’s
total receipts for the fiscal year closed May at an unprecedented
$1,934,919,000,000, according to the Monthly Treasury Statement.
record revenue, the federal
government still ran a
deficit of $436.382 billion
in the first eight months
of the fiscal year, which
began on Oct. 1, 2013 and
will end on Sept. 30, 2014.
the month of May alone,
the federal government
ran a deficit of $129.971
billion--bringing in $199.889
billion in revenue while
spending $329.860 billion.
White House Office of Management
and Budget has estimated
that in the full fiscal
2014, the federal government
will collect $3.001721
trillion in taxes, spend
$3.650526 trillion, running
a deficit of $648.805 billion.
May 5, 2014:
Officials at Broward County Public Schools banned a fifth grader
from reading the Bible during “free reading” time,
according to lawyers from the Liberty Institute who are threatening
to sue the school for violating the First Amendment.
Rubeo is a fifth-grade
student at the school,
who had been given a Bible
at church as a Christmas
gift. It’s his favorite
book, so he decided he’d
like to read it during
the time in class where
students are allowed to
read anything they choose.
Thomas is Giovanni’s
teacher. On April 8, Thomas
told Giovanni he’s
not allowed to read the
Bible in her class and
ordered him to put it away.
Giovanni asked her to call
his father, Paul Rubeo,
about the incident.
did so, leaving a voicemail
that included, “I
noticed that he [Giovanni]
has a book—a religious
book—in the classroom.
He’s not permitted
to read those books in
my classroom.” Rubeo
then contacted the school’s
principal, Orinthia Dias,
who brought in the school’s
legal department. None
of them are willing to
acknowledge that Giovanni
has a constitutional right
to read the Bible.
May 5, 2014:
Americans United for Separation of Church and State today strongly
condemned a U.S. Supreme Court ruling upholding the town of
Greece, N.Y.’s policy of opening government meetings
with Christian prayers.
a 5-4 decision today, the
high court said that Marsh
v. Chambers, a 1983 ruling
that permits state legislatures
to pay for official chaplains
and open sessions with
prayers, authorizes the
Supreme Court just relegated
millions of Americans -
both believers and nonbelievers
- to second-class citizenship,” said
the Rev. Barry W. Lynn,
executive director of Americans
United, which sponsored
the lawsuit. “Government
should not be in the business
of forcing faith on anyone,
and now all who attend
meetings of their local
boards could be subjected
to the religion of the
for the majority, Justice
Anthony M. Kennedy rejected
the argument that government-sponsored
prayers must be non-sectarian.
argue, in effect, that
legislative prayer may
be addressed only to a
generic God,” Kennedy
wrote. “The law and
the Court could not draw
this line for each specific
prayer or seek to require
ministers to set aside
their nuanced and deeply
personal beliefs for vague
and artificial ones.”
also said the town’s
prayer practices were not
coercive because people
are free to not participate.
Kennedy did imply that
some limits may be imposed
on prayer before government
the course and practice
over time shows that the
invocations denigrate nonbelievers
or religious minorities,
threaten damnation, or
preach conversion, many
present may consider the
prayer to fall short of
the desire to elevate the
purpose of the occasion
and to unite lawmakers
in their common effort,” Kennedy
wrote. “That circumstance
would present a different
case than the one presently
before the Court.”
a dissenting opinion, Justice
Elena Kagan said the decision
will foster majority rule
on public prayer.
respectfully dissent from
the Court’s opinion
because I think the Town
of Greece’s prayer
practices violate that
norm of religious equality – the
constitutional idea that
our public institutions
belong no less to the Buddhist
or Hindu than to the Methodist
or Episcopalian,” she
United brought the litigation
on behalf of two Greece
residents, Susan Galloway,
who is Jewish, and Linda
Stephens, an atheist. They
objected to the town board’s
practice of inviting clergy
to open meetings with prayers
that left them feeling
unwelcome and alienated.
board has not required
that the invocations be
inclusive and non-sectarian.
Consequently, the prayers
have almost always been
Christian. Official records
showed that between 1999
and June 2010, about two-thirds
of the 120 recorded invocations
contained references to “Jesus
Christ,” “Jesus,” “Your
Son” or the “Holy
Spirit.” And almost
all of the prayer-givers
have been Christian clergy.
a result, in a unanimous
May 2012 decision, a three-judge
panel of the U.S. 2nd Circuit
Court of Appeals ruled
against the town’s
prayer policy. Judge Guido
Calabresi said “a
given legislative prayer
practice, viewed in its
entirety, may not advance
a single religious sect.”
said today’s decision
ruling is out of step with
the realities of modern-day
America,” Lynn said. “In
a country where pluralism
and diversity are expanding
every day, a Supreme Court
decision that gives the
green light to ‘majority-rules’ prayer
at local government is
exactly what we don’t
May 5, 2014:
A professor at a public university in North Carolina forbade
his students from thanking God in personal statements that
will be delivered during their departmental graduation ceremony
an email obtained by Campus
Reform, Assistant Professor
Eli Hvastkovs, who teaches
chemistry at East Carolina
University (ECU), instructed
his students to prepare
a “family friendly” 35word
personal statement that
mentions future plans or “thanks
someone.” The students,
however, were explicitly
forbidden from thanking
"You can't thank God. I'm sorry about this – and I don't want to have
to outline the reasons why.” - Professor Eli Hvastkovs
“I've had some submissions that needed to be edited. so [sic] here are
some guidelines,” the email reads. “1. You can't thank God. I'm sorry
about this – and I don't want to have to outline the reasons why.”
In an interview with Campus Reform late last week, Professor
Hvastkovs defended the restrictions and confirmed he sent the
email banning giving thanks to God after too many students
recognized religious figures during last year’s event.
not a religious ceremony,” Hvastkovs
told Campus Reform, “it's
also acknowledged the ban
was not a school policy.
more of a departmental
thing, we have a diverse
student body,” he
May 5, 2014:
The committee wasted no time in using the Convention on the
Rights of the Child to pressure the Catholic Church to change
its teaching about the family and control what is taught in
private classrooms. It urged the Vatican to “refrain
from using terminology that could challenge equality between
girls and boys” and to “take active measures to
ensure that textbooks used in Catholic schools do not contain
gender stereotyping that might limit the development of the
talents and abilities of boys and girls and undermine their
educational and life opportunities.”
This is nothing less than the UN trying to control what textbooks
are used in private parochial schools. If this or other UN
treaties were ratified in the U.S., this is evidence that UN
committees would try to oversee the textbooks used by homeschool
families and how parents teach their children.
In 1907, Monsignor Robert Hugh Benson, reading the signs most
people didn’t noticed, published his dystopian End Times
novel, Lord of the World. Set in the early twenty-first
century, Benson foresaw a time when busy workers “had
learned at least the primary lessons of the gospel that there
was no God but man, no priest but the politician, no prophet
but the schoolmaster.” He envisioned a world in which
Christianity had all but vanished with little hope of resurgence,
a world where the marginalization of Christians morphed into
persecution and finally genocide.
the novel, an elderly statesman
explains the situation
to an young priest: “First,
you see, there was Materialism,
pure and simple that failed
more or less—it was
too crude—until psychology
came to the rescue. Now
psychology claims all the
rest of the ground; and
the supernatural sense
seems accounted for. That’s
the claim. No, father,
we are losing; and we shall
go on losing, and I think
we must ever be ready for
a catastrophe at any moment.”
“They threaten us with consequences if we refuse to call what is good,
evil, and what is evil, good,” said [Dr. Robert] George, “They demand
[we] conform our thinking to their orthodoxy, or else say nothing at all.” Break
their rules and, like the beleaguered Christians in Benson’s novel, we
could pay a steep price in our careers, our social standing, our friendships,
our fortunes, and our futures."
Churches around Europe were subjected to theft, arson and explosions
last year, according to a new report.
100 incidences of vandalism
across eleven European
countries are catalogued
by a think-tank – the
Observatory on Intolerance
and Discrimination against
report details cases of
petrol bombs being thrown
at a church in Italy, and
Lutheran buildings that
were burnt down in Germany.
Police have investigated a Baptist church over a poster which
suggested non-believers would burn in Hell.
20-year-old passer-by complained
the sign did not tally
with the message "love
poster read: "If you
think there is no God,
you better be right" with
a picture of burning flames
below the words.
John Rose of Attleborough
Baptist Church in Norfolk,
said the poster was an
attempt to get people to
engage with the Christian
message and he regretted
that it had been interpreted
as inciting hatred.
police spokesman said national
guidance required them
to investigate the complaint
that the poster was offensive
and the matter had been
recorded as a "hate
incident." After talking
to the police the poster
was taken down.
Daily Mirror survey showed
its readers were 2-1 in
favor of the church displaying
Rutherford Institute Asks U.S. Supreme Court to Prohibit Navy’s
Practice of Discriminating Against Evangelical Navy Chaplains
WASHINGTON, D.C. — Coming at the end of a decade-long
fight to achieve equality in the treatment of Navy Chaplains,
attorneys for The Rutherford Institute have asked the U.S.
Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional the U.S. Navy’s
practice of discriminating against evangelical chaplains within
its Chaplain corps. In coming to the defense of numerous current
and former U.S. Navy chaplains who allege that the Navy has
procedures allowing discrimination against evangelical chaplains
in regard to promotions and assignments, Institute attorneys
point to ample statistical evidence that Navy boards are biased
against chaplains of certain “disfavored” denominations.
As such, Institute attorneys are asking that the U.S. Supreme
Court rule that the Navy is in violation of the First Amendment’s
Establishment Clause and the Fifth Amendment’s guarantee
to equal protection of the law.
A hip-hop church opened Saturday night in Huntersville,
Pastor Quinn Rodgers of Generation One says his church is targeting
a younger audience.
“We’re trying to reach the un-churched, the de-churched, the folks
who have given up on church and are looking for something different, “Rodgers
Traditional religions hymns will not be sung, instead the congregation
will hear a DJ scratching hip-hop beats.
“We’ve taken the hip-hop culture and we’ve extracted all the
negative connotations out of it and we’ve deposited solid Christian doctrine
in there,” Rodgers told WBTV.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) removed religious
prayer from its commencement ceremony this year.
MIT Chaplain Robert Randolph
has given a religious prayer
at the ceremony, as he
prayed to the “God
of Abraham, Jesus and Mohammed” during
last year’s graduation.
However, MIT’s Commencement
Committee emailed undergraduates
announcing the change in
the administration wants
to accommodate everyone,
it should minimize exclusion."
sudden reversal comes from
the widespread discussion
of an op-ed written by
student Aaron Scheinburg
in the university’s
paper. Scheinburg claimed
that, “[i]t would
be so easy — embarrassingly
easy — to extend
[the prayer's] message
to 100 percent of students
by simply not invoking
the administration wants
to accommodate everyone,
it should minimize exclusion,
not average presumed personal
preferences. Simply not
mentioning God would exclude
no one. Choosing neutrality
would just be like all
the other days when MIT
doesn’t endorse a
The chaplain then began his secular prayer by stating that “[t]oday
is the beginning of a new chapter in our collective lives,
we have come from many places and we are grateful for the shared
energy we have found here.”
than end the invocation
with a traditional ‘amen’,
Randolph finished with
a Maya Angelou quote.
Campus Christian club found guilty of discrimination for requiring
its leaders to be Christians
•The California State University system is requiring campus club leaders
to sign a nondiscriminatory agreement.
agreement would mean campus
groups would not be able
to discriminate based on "race,
Christian Fellowship may
lose its club status at
Chico State University
as it requires its leaders
to be Christians.
Despite always believing in the existence of good, evil and
God, ex-New York Police Department sergeant Ralph Sarchie didn’t
consider himself a particularly religious guy — that
is, until he began battling what he says are dangerous, supernatural
a self-described demonologist
who was once a cop for
the 46th police precinct
in New York City — and
the inspiration for the
new Hollywood film “Deliver
Us From Evil” — told
TheBlaze that he believes
possessions and infestations
are on the rise.
definitely on the rise.
I hate to say it,” Sarchie
said in an interview. “As
society pushes God out,
no one can deny that that’s
a good portion of society
that just cannot stomach
Jesus Christ and when I
see that, I have to wonder
where that hatred comes
A single-letter change in the genetic code is enough to generate
blond hair in humans, in dramatic contrast to our dark-haired
ancestors. A new analysis by Howard Hughes Medical Institute
(HHMI) scientists has pinpointed that change, which is common
in the genomes of Northern Europeans, and shown how it fine-tunes
the regulation of an essential gene.
particular genetic variation
in humans is associated
with blond hair, but it
isn't associated with eye
color or other pigmentation
traits," says David
Kingsley, an HHMI investigator
at Stanford University
who led the study. "The
specificity of the switch
shows exactly how independent
color changes can be encoded
to produce specific traits
in humans." Kingsley
and his colleagues published
their findings in the June
1, 2014, issue of the journal
"The man who tells us that blood has little effect must have read history
to very little purpose; or have looked very carelessly into the glass that Nature
hourly holds up to his view."
-T. C. DeLeon, FOUR YEARS IN REBEL CAPITALS:
An Inside View of Life in the Southern Confederacy, from Birth
to Death; from Original Notes, Collated in the Years 1861 to
"We do not learn morality by reading ethics textbooks or listening to sermons.
Our moral life begins with the love we have for our mother and the respect we
have for our father, and it begins to radiate genetically outward to brothers
and sisters and cousins, while at the same time escaping the household and kinship
by reaching out to neighbors and eventually to comrades, teammates, and coworkers.
English is oftern a fuzzy and impreicse language, but in the case of kinfolk,
neighbors, comrades, and friends, our set of verbal distinctions makes it more
difficult to see than underlying all these words is a common notion: that of
-Thomas Fleming, "Virtual Neighborhoods," Chronicles,
Sues Wisconsin Company, Says
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), a federal
agency tasked with enforcing workplace discrimination laws, is
suing a private American business for firing a group of Hispanic
and Asian employees over their inability to speak English at
work, claiming that the English-language requirement in a U.S.
business constitutes “discrimination.”
Watch reported Tuesday
that the government is
accusing Wisconsin Plastics,
Inc. of violating Title
VII of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964, which prohibits
discrimination based on “national
origin.” The government
argues this includes the “linguistic
characteristics of a national
to a news release from
the EEOC, Chicago Regional
Attorney John C. Hendrickson
said the Green Bay-based
requirement is based on “superficial” reasoning.
experience at the EEOC
has been that so-called
'English only' rules and
requirements of English
fluency are often employed
to make what is really
discrimination appear acceptable.
But superficial appearances
are not fooling anyone,” Hendrickson
said in the release. “When
speaking English fluently
is not, in fact, required
for the safe and effective
performance of a job, nor
for the successful operation
of the employer’s
business, requiring employees
to be fluent in English
usually constitutes employment
discrimination on the basis
of national origin — and
thus violates federal law.”
From https://www.aacu.org/publications/globalforeword.cfm; circa
Ford Foundation's Commitment
to a Global Vision
Berresford, the president
of the Ford Foundation,
made the following remarks
on the opening day of the
Tri-National Seminar on
Diversity and Higher Education.
She welcomed the three
countries' delegates to
the final seminar of the
three-year Ford Foundation-sponsored
project and shared with
them her vision of how
the experiment in transnational
conversations was a portent
of new intellectual and
Secondly, I believe that affirmative intentions and actions are
needed on many fronts in this society. For example, I think we
have a lot of work to do to build truthful histories of how we
got where we are, how we developed the discriminatory patterns
that plague our society, because, unless we understand how we
constructed these patterns, we will not understand how long it
will take and how much effort it will take to deconstruct them
and build something better in their place. I think we also need
truthful stories about our success in overcoming the barriers
that our discriminatory patterns have created, because such stories
can show people that the success results from struggle. It is
not the result of some quiet evolution in which the mere passage
of time moves us ahead. The struggle involves power, and no one
gives up power very easily. We have to demonstrate that to the
HOUSTON, Texas--As illegal immigrants continue to spill across
the U.S.-Mexico border, federal authorities are attempting to
relocate the migrants from South Texas to housing facilities
in states across the nation. One such facility is located in
Murrieta, California, where a large group of protesters recently
blocked a bus full of migrants from arriving. The protesters
remain there, adamant that illegal immigrants don't get dumped
in their town. But soon the concerned citizens may be forced
to step down--Breitbart Texas has learned that federal agents
plan to arrive in Murrieta on Monday with riot gear to ensure
that another busload makes it to the housing facility.
Oliver, a resident of Temecula,
California--a town that
Breitbart Texas that local
police officers warned
the protesters that "it's
going to get ugly."
said, "The feds are
pissed that they haven't
been able to use this facility.
Officers out there warned
people that federal agents
will be in Murrieta on
Monday--they are going
to get the next bus through
no matter what. Riot gear
and shields will be used
to push the crowd back."
Henry, a Murrieta resident
since 1991, was told the
same thing by local officers.
being told that federal
Marshals or ICE will be
here in the next few days
and that they are bringing
riot gear," Henry
said. "They're apparently
going to be blocking off
the street with concrete
blockades so that no vehicles
can get through. The River
County Sheriff's Department
showed up last night and
brought a huge watch tower
that shoots up into the
air 35 feet."
Friday, six protesters
were arrested in Murrieta.
One was apprehended for
crossing "the yellow
tape that blocked protesters
from the Border Patrol
station entrance," according
to USA Today.
expressed frustration at
the fact that the illegal
immigrants are being "rewarded" for
breaking the law--after
illegally crossing the
border, they receive a
slew of taxpayer subsidized
benefits like housing,
food, education, vocational
training, and legal counsel.
Most are then released
onto U.S. soil.
U.S. citizens break the
law, on the other hand,
they pay the price. "If
any one of us were to roll
through a stop sign, we'd
be pulled over and ticketed," Henry
Our Hispanic missions are an important part of the Episcopal
Church in the Diocese of Atlanta. We have grown quickly and now
have nine different worshiping communities.
Catedral San Felipe - Atlanta
Church - Norcross
- Sandy Springs
Buen Pastor - Austell
Beda - Atlanta
Maria - East Point
Benedicto - Smyrna
David - Roswell
Eduardo - Lawrenceville
to Donald Davidson, it is
a lesson that all of us require
and that we can receive if
we will- once the power of
memory has been restored."
and the Calculus
of Memory," Chronicles,
A flash from the edge of a hostile trench,
A puff of smoke, a roar-
Whose echo shall roll from the Kenesaw hills
To the farthermost Christian shore,
Proclaims to the world that the warrior priest
Will battle for right no more.
for a Cause which is
By the blood of martyrs unknown-
A Cause for which they gave their lives
And for which he gave his own,
He kneels a meek ambassador
At the foot of the Father's Throne.
up in the courts of another
That angels alone have trod,
He lives, away from the din and strife
Of this blood-besprinkled sod-
Crowned with the amaranthine wreath
That is worn by the blest of God.
-Henry Lynden Flash, POEMS, 1906
"We killed Bishop Polk yesterday"
In THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: THE OFFICIAL RECORDS,
Series I, Volume XXXVIII, page 480, 1891:
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Museum
June 14, 1865
General Polk Killed at Pine Mountain
Unable to gain any advantage in the
fierce fighting around New Hope Church, Sherman
sidesteps toward the railroad to replenish
his supplies. Johnston shadows his every move,
but heavy rains soon leave both armies axle-deep
in mud. While riding along his lines, Sherman
notices a group of Confederate officers on
the crest of Pine Mountain and orders a nearby
battery to open fire. The second shot strikes
Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk in the chest,
killing him instantly.
Rudyard Kipling's "The Gods of the Copybook Headings," October,
I PASS through my incarnations in every
age and race,
I make my proper prostrations to the Gods of the Market Place.
Peering through reverent fingers I watch them flourish and fall,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings, I notice, outlast them all.
were living in trees when they met us. They
showed us each in turn
That Water would certainly wet us, as Fire would certainly burn:
But we found them lacking in Uplift, Vision and Breadth of Mind,
So we left them to teach the Gorillas while we followed the March of
moved as the Spirit listed. They never
altered their pace,
Being neither cloud nor wind-borne like the Gods of the Market Place,
But they always caught up with our progress, and presently word would
That a tribe had been wiped off its icefield, or the lights had gone
out in Rome.
the Hopes that our World is built on they
were utterly out of touch,
They denied that the Moon was Stilton; they denied she was even Dutch;
They denied that Wishes were Horses; they denied that a Pig had Wings;
So we worshipped the Gods of the Market Who promised these beautiful
the Cambrian measures were forming, They
promised perpetual peace.
They swore, if we gave them our weapons, that the wars of the tribes
But when we disarmed They sold us and delivered us bound to our foe,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "Stick to the
Devil you know."
the first Feminian Sandstones we were promised
the Fuller Life
(Which started by loving our neighbour and ended by loving his wife)
Till our women had no more children and the men lost reason and faith,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "The Wages of
Sin is Death."
the Carboniferous Epoch we were promised
abundance for all,
By robbing selected Peter to pay for collective Paul;
But, though we had plenty of money, there was nothing our money could
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "If you don't
work you die."
the Gods of the Market tumbled, and their
smooth-tongued wizards withdrew
And the hearts of the meanest were humbled and began to believe it
That All is not Gold that Glitters, and Two and Two make Four
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings limped up to explain it once
it will be in the future, it was at the birth
There are only four things certain since Social Progress began.
That the Dog returns to his Vomit and the Sow returns to her Mire,
And the burnt Fool's bandaged finger goes wabbling back to the Fire;
that after this is accomplished, and the
brave new world begins
When all men are paid for existing and no man must pay for his sins,
As surely as Water will wet us, as surely as Fire will burn,
The Gods of the Copybook Headings with terror and slaughter return!
From http://www.kiplingsociety.co.uk/kip_fra.htm; viewed
May 5, 2014:
Rudyard Kipling's reputation grew from phenomenal early critical success
to international celebrity, then faded for a time as his conservative
views were held by some to be old-fashioned. The balance is now being
"We have lost so much! I would
rather anything than this!"
-General Joseph E. Johnston, C.S.A., The Army of Tennessee,
in W.M. Polk's LEONIDAS POLK: Bishop and General, Vol. II, 1893
Headquarters, Army of Tennessee, In the Field, June 14, 1864, General Field
Orders No. 2
Comrades! You are called to mourn your first captain, your oldest companion
in arms. Lieutenant-General Polk fell today at the outpost of this army
-the army he raised and commanded -in all of whose trials he shared -to all
of whose victories he contributed. In this distinguished leader we have
lost the most courteous of Gentlemen, the most gallant of soldiers. The
Christian, Patriot, Soldier has neither lived nor died in vain. His example
is before you -his mantle rests with you.
-signed J.E. Johnston, General;
courtesy of Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH
"I am too sad to come over this evening. Ti's hard that one so noble,
generous, and brave as our friend Genl' Polk should be taken from us."
-Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood to General Johnston, June
courtesy of Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH
Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, June 15, 1864:
Death of Lieut Gen. Polk.
The telegraphic dispatch which announces the resumption of active hostilities
in Northern Georgia brings also the melancholy tidings of the death of Lieut.
Gen. Leonidas Polk. He was struck by a cannon ball and instantly killed. Gen.
Polk was a native of Ashe county, North Carolina, and was educated to the military
profession, having graduated at West Point. Subsequently, however, he adopted
the peaceful calling of the ministry, rose to distinction in the Protestant
Episcopal Church, and became Bishop of the Diocese of Louisiana. At the breaking
out of the war he relinquished his prelacy, under the solemn conviction that
he could be of more service to his country in the field, and has since become
distinguished for his ability as an officer and his valor in the presence of
the foe. When the rank of Lieutenant General was created by Congress, the title
was conferred upon him as one of those who had earned it by gallantry at the
head of his command. He narrowly escaped death by the bursting of a gun at
the battle of Belmont, but was only spared to lay down his life in the service
of his country at a later period of the war. His memory will be cherished as
one of the most devoted patriots whom a sense of duty has led to embark in
this noble struggle for Southern independence.
The battle Commenced in North Georgia- Gen.
enemy opened slowly with artillery on our position yesterday
afternoon, and, after the storm passed, continued up
to nightfall. They opened again early this morning, and
the artillery firing continued when the train left Marietta.
Both armies are gradually moving towards our right. As
the rains have closed, it is supposed that active operations
will again commence. Trains from the front to-day bring
very few wounded.
The following dispatch from Major West, of Gen. Polk's staff, was received
by Col. Thrasher at noon to-day:
Gen. Polk was struck by a cannon shot to-day about
eleven o'clock and instantly killed. Gens. Johnston,
Hardee and Jackson were with him when he fell."
Columbus Times, Wednesday Morning,
June 15, 1864:
Special to the Columbus Times
Latest from the Georgia Front
Death of Lieut. Gen. Polk
Atlanta, June 14. -Lieut. Gen. Polk was killed by a shell to-day,
above Marietta. He was standing in a group with Gens. Johnston, Hardee,
Hood* and others, observing the enemy from a position occupied by
the Washington Artillery. A fire was opened on the party from a Yankee
battery, the second shot taking effect direclty in the chest of Gen.
Polk. The body was fearfully mangled. He died instantly, and was
carried to Marietta, where the remains await a coffin.
The firing to-day was only a demonstraion. There was no general engagement.
From the Georgia Front
Death of General Polk Confirmed
Forrest's Vicotry a Great Success!!
Three Thousand Prisoners Captured!
Atlanta, June 14. -The enemy opened slowly with artillery on our
position yesterday afternoon,
after the storm passed and continued up ot night-fall, and opened
again this morning.
Artillery firing continued when the train left Marietta.
Both armies were gradually moving towards our right.
As the rains have ceased, it is supposed active operation will again
Trains from the front to-day bring very few wounded.
The following dispatch from Maj. West of Gen. Polk's staff, was received
by Col Thrasher
at noon to-day:
Lieut. Gen. Polk was struck by a cannon shot today about 11 o'lcock
and instantly killed.
Gen. Johnston, Hardee and Jackson were with him when he fell.
"vows of vengeance"
The Columbus Times, Friday Morning, June
The death of Gen. Polk is said to have cast a deep gloom over the
army, and thousands of vows of veangeance have been registered.
"the painful intelligence"
"a great and good man"
The Columbus Times,
Saturday Morning, June 18, 1864:
Death of Gen. Polk
Special Correspondence of the Memphis Appeal
On the Front, 12 N., June 14, 1864
The electric quiver along the wires, has doubtless, in this time,
conveyed to your city the painful intelligence of the deat of Lieut.
Gen. Leonidas Polk, who was killed by a shell from the enemy about
two hour since.
Being but a few hundred yards from the spot, I hastened to it, to
gain the particulars, which are few and simple. Gens. Johnston, Hardee,
Polk, Bate and Jackson, accompanied by a number of their respective
staff officers, were riding around viewing our works; coming to the
high point on Pine Mountain, occupied by Bate's division, they dismounted
and approached the position occupied by Ferguson's battery, Slocomb's
battery being just to the right. These batteries had engaged
the special attention of the enemy for a day or two, and, as I mentioned
in my last, they frequently shelled this hill furiously.
When this party appeared, the enemy again opened fire. After remaining
a few minutes they all started leisurely for their horses, except
Gen. Polk. He was the last to leave. Just as he turned to walk away,
the fatal shell, or a very large fragfragmet, struck him, breaking
both arms, and terribly mutilating his breast; he fell dead without
a struggle. His staff gathered around him and bore him away. Thus
has fallen a great and good man, a peerless churchman, warrior, hero,
and patriot, in the hour when his services are most needed, and the
fate of his country undecided. Strange and mysterious to man are
the ways of God. But he has gone to reap his reward in that realm
where the wicked cease to trouble and the weary are at rest.
Gloom and sadness are depicted on the sad face of every one. All
feel that our nation has sustained the loss of a pillar and champion.
He was not Christian virutes, than admired for his heroism
The enemy are closing up to our lines steadily, and feeling the advanced
position of Bate in the centre, and also of Hood's corps on the right.
The sun in shining out pleasantly, and the mud drying up fast. Stirring
times may be anticipated.
Special to Chronicle and
Sentinel (corrected excerpt):
A HERO FALLEN!
The gallant Gen. Polk Killed. His remains at Marietta.
Atlanta, June 14.
Lt. Gen. Polk was killed by a shell today above
Marietta. He was standing in a group with Gens. Johnston,
Hardee, and others, observing the enemy from
a position occupied by the Washington Artillery. A
fire was opened on the party from a Yankee battery,
the second shot taking effect directly in the chest
of Gen. Polk. He died instantly, and was carried
from the field to Marietta, where the remains await
-The Confederate Union, Milledgeville,
Georgia, Tuesday June 21, 1864
The Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, June
The fall of
Lieut. Gen. Polk.
The Atlanta Confederacy has an interesting account of the fall of
Lieut. Gen. (Bishop) Polk. It appears that Gen. Polk, with Gen. Joseph E.
Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee and Gen. Jackson, of the cavalry, accompanied
by their respective staffs, had ridden out on the morning of the 14th inst
to Pine Mountain to survey the positions. They reached that elevation, which
is in the neighborhood of Gen. Bate's line, some five or six miles in front
of Marietta, about 11 o'clock, A. M.
The Confederacy says:
‘The party were dismounted, and all their horses were left below the crown
of the knoll. Some one had suggested that so large a group of officers at so
exposed a point might attract the fire of the enemy. The suggestion had scarcely
been offered before a shell from one of the enemy's batteries, recently planted,
about nine hundred yards distant, passed very near them. The group then began
to disperse in different directions. General Johnston and Lieut. Gen. Polk moved
off a few paces together and separated — the former selecting a path lower
down the hill, and Gen. Polk proceeding along the cone of the knoll. Gen. Johnston
had scarcely parted from Gen. Polk before a second shell from the same battery
struck the latter in the chest, and he fell without a groan.
Gale, of his staff, who observed his fall, ran immediately
back to the spot, but before he had reached it the great
soul of his loved General had sped beyond the clouds.
There was a slight tremor of the lower jaw, but the eyes
were fixed and the pulses ceased. A three inch rifle
ball or shell had taken effect in the left arm, above
the elbow, crushing it and passing through the body,
and also through the right arm, just below the shoulder
joint, leaving it in the same mutilated condition as
the left, portions of the integuments serving to secure
the arms still to the frame. The opening through the
chest was indeed a frightful one, and in all probability,
from the direction of the missile, involved the heart
and lungs in its course. The position of the General,
on the slope of Pine Mountain, at the moment of the sad
occurrence, accounts for the upward tendency of the shot,
as indicated in the course traced on his person.
enemy's battery by this time began to fire with great
rapidity, and the body was borne back on a litter, under
a heavy fire. It was carried to the Relief Committee
Ward of Dr. J. N. Simmons, in Marietta. Here, upon examination
of the pockets of his coat, were found, in that of the
left side, his Book of Common Prayer for the service
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and in the right
pocket, four copies of the Rev. Dr. Quintard's little
work entitled. "Balm for the Weary and the Wounded." Upon
the fly leaves of each of these little volumes, indicating
for whom they were intended, was inscribed the names
respectively of Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee,
and Lieut. Gen. Hood, "with the compliments of Lieut.
Gen. Leonidas Polk, June 12th, 1864." Within the
fourth volume was inscribed his own name. All were saturated
with the blood which flowed from the wound.
remains, in charge of his staff, reached this city last
night, and were received by a committee of citizens appointed
by the Mayor, and deposited in St. Luke's Church, on
The Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, July 1, 1864:
from Sherman's army — the Usual Situation Lies — how
Gen Polk's death was discovered
The New York Herald contains a long letter from Sherman's army,
dated June 16th, in which all his repulses are ingeniously covered up under
the name of "reconnaissances." The easy satisfied tone of the
writer will hardly deceive the Yankees now, as they have doubtless heard
of the bloody repulse of the 22d. We copy some portions of the account:
of the 15th- M'Pherson.
The morning of the 15th dawned amid an irregular fire of artillery along the
line, and met with a corresponding fire from the batteries of the enemy. As
the day advanced the fire became more heavy, and musketry was used by the pickets
of the two armies. Our lines at noon commenced moving into new and more advanced
positions. McPherson, who had the left this morning, instead of the right,
as upon the crossing of the Etowah, continued on the left, though making some
changes in the position of his corps.
When the movement of the army began the 17th corps, (Blair's) from its place
on the right of McPherson's line, moved forward obliqucing towards the left
and the railroad. This corps soon became engaged with the enemy. As a support
to the 17th, Harrow's division of the 15th was detached and placed upon the
extreme left, while Osterhaus's, of the same corps, followed as a reserve.
The other corps of McPherson's army swung around, falling in on the right of
the 17th, and participating in the skirmishing which was going on continually.
Before the movement commenced McPherson's command ranged from the right to
the left- 17th, 16th, and 15th corps. Afterwards this order was reversed, placing
the 15th on the right.
this arrangement the troops advanced, the three corps
engaging the enemy in front, White Harrow, with his division,
wheeled to the right almost in a complete circle, and
soon found himself in the rear of an outlying detachment
of the enemy, consisting of two regiments, acting as
a support to his picket line. Harrow immediately opened
a light fire upon the troops he had cut off, and soon
obliged them to surrender. They were the 31st and 40th
Alabama infantry. The other corps of McPherson's army,
while this was going on, upon the left, succeeded in
forcing the enemy back, taking a small number of prisoners.
Harrow, having advanced further than was intended, fell
back with his prisoners and gave our line the intended
direction. What position McPherson took after the success
of his afternoon's work, I am not at liberty to state;
let it be sufficient at present to say that he is some
distance from the position he held on the 12th.
Hooker's operations on the same day — also the other corps.
Simultaneously with the movement of McPherson's troops the rest of the corps
were advanced — Palmer directing himself towards the enemy's position
on Kenesaw Mountain, Howard at Pine Mountain, the other corps filling up the
gaps and participating in the general action. Hooker during the day made one
of his magnificent assault is upon the enemy's works at the base of Lost Mountain.
He soon carried their outer line of rifle pits, and charged with such impetuosity
that he was not long in driving the enemy completely out of his first line
of fortifications, forcing him up the mountain. In the position taken from
the enemy Hooker remained, and after little labor placed it in a safe condition
of defence. The enemy made some efforts to recover the lost ground, on very
aptly, Lost Mountain, but was unable, being repulsed each time he undertook
The unchecked progress and invariably successful reconnaissances of Sherman's
army have at last almost brought us one of the mountainous region of Georgia.
Having practiced the popular flank movement upon Johnston at Dalton, avoided
the bold and defensible range of the Chattanooga Mountains, having forced the
enemy, with hardly a skirmish, out of the Altoona Mountains, there remains
but one strong point left at which to make a good defence, and that is the
position he now occupies. We had, indeed, supposed that the Altoona range was
the last obstacle to a debouch upon the open country of the Chattahoochee valley;
but we suddenly find ourselves opposed by another but smaller range of hills,
though equally as formidable, the most prominent of which are Kenesaw, Pine
and Lost Mountains. It is here the enemy has successfully stood for a week,
defying the ability of our army to move him. The operations on the 15th, however,
inaugurated the movement which will soon put us in possession of this important
stronghold. Since our arrival at Big Shanty our army has by no means been idle.
Every day there have been reconnaissances and observations, tending to the
discovery of the enemy's weak points.
The map which accompanies this dispatch, and points out the prominent features
of interest in this section, is a tracing of the military map made at Chattanooga,
and is of great accuracy. Portions of it consist of a protraction of the surveys
of the Cherokee gold mine region, which was originally laid out in sections
and thus sold. With these facilities Capt W E Merrill, topographical engineer
of the Arm the Cumberland, was enabled to compile an excellent and trustworthy
map of the country through which our armies have been and are now operating.
It will be seen from the map that Johnston's line now extends through Lost,
Pine, and Kenesaw Mountains, extending in a southwestern direction, or rather
almost directly from east to west. The mountains alluded to me peaks in the
range, and add vastly to its defensive strength, and magnify the difficulties
in the way of our army. Prior to the movement detailed in this dispatch the
enemy held works at the of the range. The operations of the 13th and 16th in
driving these to another fine of works running along the summit of the The
capture of this line will insure the of the entire range, and will probably
of the next action.
in sight of Marietta.
A surgeon who called on General Sherman last night informs me that the General
remarked that he had "counted the houses of Marietta" that afternoon,
from an elevation in the vicinity of Pine Mountain. This indicates how close
we are to the just foothold of the rebels this side of the Chattahoochee. A
few days will probably find him driven across the river, and the mountain one
region cleared by our army. Marietta is a small but pretty place; about twenty
miles from Atlanta.
with prisoners — the Yankee troops not sacrificed
I had extensive conversation with the prisoners taken on the 15th, but elicit
little news from them. Some say the rebel soldiers are in as good spirits as
ever, and just as willing to fight [forever]; others do not put on such a bright
coloring. The captured Colonel was formerly a lawyer in Chicago, and a short
time before the war removed to Huntsville, Alabama, where he prosecuted his
profession, and at the same time carried on a suit for the possession of the
heart of a the this Southron; which he won, and united to himself city.
One very singular observation was made by several of the men in relation to
the fighting of the two armies, which struck me as very true. They say that
our men do not stand up and sacrifice their lines as freely as they do. Our
men have common sense enough in know when they are unnecessarily exposed, and
act accordingly. The rebel army is moved only by the intelligence of its leaders;
our army acts through the intelligence of the whole mass. The prisoners say
our officers do not sacrifice their men uselessly, but always consider the
cost before they undertake a move They think their officers have little regard
for the lives of the soldiers, and are willing to sacrifice any number to accomplish
How Gen Polk's death was discovered.
A short time ago a signal officer by the name of Fluke, if I remember the name
rightly, discovered the principle of the rebel system of signals, which enabled
him to interpret what was transpiring along the enemy's lines. The discovery
and key to the system was made known to some of our signal officers, and often
through them and by this means valuable information has been secured concerning
the designs of the enemy. On the afternoon of the 14th, after the death of
Gen Polk, it seems the fact was announced along the enemy's lines by signals.
One of the signal officers of our corps read and interpreted the signels, and
at once made the unexpected announcement to our officers.
An officer tells me, when he drove the enemy back on the following day, that
a pole with a piece of paper fastened at the end was found standing against
a stump. One of them scurried the paper, upon which were these words: "You
damned Yankees have killed old General Polk."
the first news of his death reached us there was some
doubt whether it was Lieutenant General Polk or a subordinate
general of the same name. From the facts since secured,
however, there seems to be no doubt about its being the
variable Bishop General Leonidas.
"Without a groan his great manly form, so full of honor and love, tottered
and fell, with his feet to the foe, and his face upturned to the sky above."
-Mary Polk Branch, MEMOIRS OF A SOUTHERN WOMAN, 1912
"The most remarkable thing about him was, that not a drop of blood was ever
seen to come out of the place through which the cannon ball [shell] had passed. My
pen and ability is inadequate to the task of doing his memory justice. Every
private soldier loved him... When I saw him there dead, I felt that I had lost
a friend whom I had ever loved and respected, and that the South had lost one
of her best and greatest generals."
-Sam R. Watkins, Private, C.S.A., "CO. AYTCH," 1882
"In the left pocket of his coat was found his Book of Common-Prayer,
and in the right four copies of a little manual entitled 'Balm for the Weary
and Wounded' [penned by Rev. Dr. Charles Todd Quintard]. Upon the fly-leaf
of three of these had been written the names respectively of 'General Joseph
E. Johnston,' 'Lieutenant-General Hardee,' 'Lieutenant-General Hood,' 'with compliments
of Leonidas Polk, June 12th, 1864.' Upon that of the fourth was inscribed
his own name. All were saturated with his blood."
-Funeral Services at the burial of Liet. Gen. Leonidas Polk,
reveals that the fatal blow was struck by a timed fuse 3" Hotchkiss
shell fired from an Ordnance cannon (sometimes called "Rodman" gun,
though incorrectly) sighted by Corporal Frank McCollum, of Captain Peter
Simonson's 5th Indiana Battery, of Major-General David S. Stanely's Division,
of Major-General Oliver O. Howard's IV Army Corps, of Major-General George
H. Thomas' ("the Shame of Virginia") Army of the Cumberland,
of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman's Military Division of the
(Sources: THE CAMPAIGN FOR ATLANTA,
William R. Scaife, 1993; ARTICLES OF WAR, Albert
(Source: Hotchkiss Projectiles and Projectile Cross Sections
at Jack Melton's authoritative Civil
War Artillery; viewed 5/8/2014)
Pine Mtn. GA, June 14-15, 1864, Washington Artillery
Courtesy of Fred Bentley, Sr.
Unexploded Hotchkiss shell (timing fuse variety) dug from
a tree on Pine Mountain, presumably fired from Federal artillery.
Plaque as an honor to Washington Artillery, per shell fired at them,
not by them.
Confederate batteries defending the Pine Mountain salient
included one unit of the New Orleans Washington Artillery:
of the most popular shells used
during the war
A three piece artillery shell
Percussion (displayed) or timing fuse
Black powder bursting charge
In the first millisecond of cannon fire the back end of the projectile
(1) is forced forward causing the lead band (2) around the center portion
of the shell to expand so it will engage the rifling in the barrel causing
it to spin which gives it greater accuracy. The bursting charge (3) was
in the nose of the shell. All three pieces were shot from a cannon.
3" Ordnance Rifle
Unidentified, well-fed, well-provisioned, well-dressed,
Yankee Artillerymen with fully equipped 3" Ordnance Rifle
replica firing of a murderous 3" Ordnance rifle
(Source: http://www.pbocorp.biz/action.php; viewed
"[T]he fatal missile of death deprived us of a hero."
-Col. J.N. Waytt of the 12th Tennessee, in Derek Smith's THE
GALLANT DEAD: Union and Confederate Generals Killed in the Civil War,
Courtesy of Archives of The University
of the South
To Columbus, Miss. June 16th, 1864
By Telegraph from Marietta, 14th, 1864
Forwarded from Meridian, 16th
To Lt. Col. M. L. Polk, Aberdeen
Father was killed today instantly being struck
by three inch rile shot while reconnoitering enemy."
" 'Pine Mountain, a lone sentinel of nature, was made sacredly historic
by the blood of the great preacher, General Bishop Polk,' a Rebel soldier wrote."
-In Smith's THE GALLANT DEAD, 2005
occupation of Pine Mountain:
General Sherman's Campaign- the crest of Pine Mountain,
where General Polk fell June 14, 1864.
-Harper's Weekly, June 16, 1864
GENERAL SHERMAN'S CAMPAIGN
We give on page 453 three interesting sketches relating to General Sherman's
advance in Georgia. These give a view of localities which, in connection
with this campaign, have become historic. We have here, in the first place,
a sketch of PINE MOUNTAIN, lately occupied by General
Howard's corps, after its evacuation by the enemy- the result of one of
Sherman's flank movements. It is a high knob, from which a splendid view
of the country and a good idea of the position of the different armies
may be obtained.
It was on the crest of this mountain that Lieutenant-General Polk was killed,
June 14, by a shell form the Fifth Indiana Battery- the battery of the
gallant Captain SIMONSON, who was himself killed
the next day. The different corps of SHERMAN'S army
have their signal stations on the top of Pine Mountain."
-Harper's Weekly, June 16, 1864
Frank Kirk Road, Kennesaw:
Captain Peter Simonson
5th Indiana Battery
Acting chief of artillery for the 1st Division (4th Army Corps),
Simonson on June 16, 1864 was busy entrenching here a 4-gun
battery of artillery when he was killed by a Confederate bullet. The
Confederate was perhaps a sharpshooter armed with an English made
rifle with scope known as a Whitworth. The Whitworth fired a sixsided
bullet that could kill a target one-half mile away. However, the
two armies were within a few hundred feet of each other at this point,
so it is not unreasonable to believe he could have been killed by a
common Confederate rifleman.
From Francis Trevelyan Miller's THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL
WAR, Vol. 3, 1911:
Pine Mountain, where Polk, the Fighting Bishop
of the Confederacy, was killed.
Lieut.-Gen Leonidas Polk, C.S.A.
So multifarious were the movements of the two great armies among the hills
and forests of that part of Georgia that it is impossible for us to follow
them all. On the 14th of June, Generals Johnston, Hardee, and Polk rode
up the slope of Pine Mountain to reconnoiter. As they were standing, making
observations, a Federal battery in the distance opened on them and General
Polk was struck in the chest with a Parrot* shell. He was killed instantly.
General Polk was greatly beloved, and his death caused a shock to the whole
Confederate army. He was a graduate of West Point; but after being graduated
he took orders in the church and for twenty years before the war was Episcopal
Bishop of Louisiana. At th outbreak of the war he entered the field and
served with distinction to the moment of his death.
During the next two weeks there was almost incessant fighting, heavy skirmishing,
sparring for position. It was a wonderful game of military strategy, played
among the hills and mountains and forests by two masters in the art of
war. On June 23d, Sherman wrote, "The whole country is one vast fort,
and Johnston must have full fifty miles of connected trenches. . . . Our
lines are now in close contact, and the fighting incessant. ... As fast
as we gain one position, the enemy has another all ready."
From Francis Trevelyan Miller's THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY
OF THE CIVIL WAR, Vol. 10, 1911:
Lieut.-General Leonidas Polk
June 14, 1864
Confederate Generals Killed in Battle
Army and Corps Commanders
A.S. Johnston, L. Polk, A.P. Hill
"I saw the smoke from and heard the thunder of Simonson's guns as they sent
the fatal shot that tore his body and ended his earthly career. Sad and awful
moment for the Confederacy."
-Lot Young in Smith's THE GALLANT DEAD, 2005
Grape shot, fragments gathered from
where General Leonidas Polk fell at the
summit of the mountain. 1864
From Dr. Polk, June 1890
(Mini balls, not grapeshot; Pine Mountain, not Kennesaw;
courtesy of Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH.)
Contemporary Pine Mountain Topography
"One special moment came after the Color Bearers
had hiked to a little-visited site on Pine Mountain when Davis [Historian
Stephen Davis, joined by Charlie Crawford of Georgia Battlefields Association]
gave a vivid description of the death there of Bishop-General Leonidas
"Great Time at the Grand Review," in Civil
War Preservation Trust's Hallowed Ground, , Winter 2004
"Georgia Governor Joe Brown on the eve of Secession: 'They may exterminate
us... but conquer us they never will!' "
-DICTIONARY OF GEORGIA BIOGRAPHIES, Vol. 1, Athens,
The University of Georgia Press, 1983
Excerpt from "Battles of Georgia,"
by Mrs. Lula Kendall Rogers,
Poet Laureate Georgia Division, U.D.C.,
Confederate Veteran, Vol. XXXI, No. 5, May 1923:
On Kenesaw's immortal crest
The flames rose higher and higher
Till Marietta seemed herself
A Kremlin pile on fire.
There kingly Bishop-General Polk,
With grand heroic love,
Exchanged the soldier's earthly crown
For a crown of stars above!
Collection of 3" Hotchkiss case shot and shells on
at the Nash Farm Battlefield reenactment and dedication,
August 19, 2006; courtesy of Mike Almond, Newnan, Georgia.
HOTCHKISS & SONS ARTILLERY PROJECTILES
Clockwise, from top left: 3-inch time fuse case shot; Frankfort Arsenal
30-second time fuse; Hotchkiss patent percussion fuse; 3-inch time fuse
shell, sectioned; 3.8-inch time fuse shell or case shot; 10-second time
fuse packet, Frankfort Arsenal, 1863; 3-inch time fuse case shot. Center:
Hotchkiss & Sons illustrated trade card, c. 1864 (reprographic 4X
Museum of Connecticut History
(Source: http://connecticuthistory.org/connecticut-arms-the-union; viewed
is expected to foster memory, which in a practical sense is
quite plausible. Mourning results in 'historic empathy,' as
we recall what we have lost."
-M.E. Bradford, "Donald
Davidson and the Calculus
of Memory, Chronicles,
Henry Timrod's "Charleston":
Calm as that second summer which precedes
The first fall of the snow,
In the broad sunlight of heroic deeds,
The City bides the foe.
As yet, behind their
ramparts stern and proud,
Her bolted thunders sleep—
Dark Sumter, like a battlemented cloud,
Looms o’er the solemn deep.
No Calpe frowns
from lofty cliff or scar
To guard the holy strand;
But Moultrie holds in leash her dogs of war
Above the level sand.
And down the dunes
a thousand guns lie couched,
Unseen, beside the flood—
Like tigers in some Orient jungle crouched
That wait and watch for blood.
streets still echoing with trade,
Walk grave and thoughtful men,
Whose hands may one day wield the patriot’s blade
As lightly as the pen.
And maidens, with
such eyes as would grow dim
Over a bleeding hound,
Seem each one to have caught the strength of him
Whose sword she sadly bound.
Thus girt without
and garrisoned at home,
Day patient following day,
Old Charleston looks from roof, and spire, and dome,
Across her tranquil bay.
Ships, through a
hundred foes, from Saxon lands
And spicy Indian ports,
Bring Saxon steel and iron to her hands,
And summer to her courts.
But still, along
you dim Atlantic line,
The only hostile smoke
Creeps like a harmless mist above the brine,
From some frail, floating oak.
Shall the spring
dawn, and she still clad in smiles,
And with an unscathed brow,
Rest in the strong arms of her palm-crowned isles,
As fair and free as now?
We know not; in
the temple of the Fates
God has inscribed her doom;
And, all untroubled in her faith, she waits
The triumph or the tomb.
New Monthly Magazine, June 1857:
Bird's-Eye View of the Palmetto City
The Topography of Charleston
"by instituting peculiar customs and organizations"
Excerpts from the
Address by Rev. John L. Girardeau, D. D.,
delivered at the Ladies Memorial Association's
Confederate Memorial Day,
Reinterrment of South Carolina's Gettysburg Dead,
Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston
May 10, 1871
To sum up what has been said: Our brethren will not have died
in vain if we their survivors adhere to the great principles
for which they contended unto death; if we preserve an attitude
of protest against those Radical influences which threaten
to sweep away every vestige of constitutional rights and guarantees,
to pollute the fountains of social life, and ultimately to
whelm our civil and religious liberties in one common ruin.
Can this attitude
be maintained? I presume not to speak of special political
measures, but would earnestly urge the adoption of a course
which will enable us to retain our hold upon our principles,
and keep a posture of preparation for any relief which a
gracious Providence may be pleased in answer to our prayers
to grant us from the evils which now oppress us:
Let us cling to
our identity as a people! The danger is upon us of losing
it- of its being absorbed and swallowed up in that of a people
which having despoiled us of the rights of freemen assumes
to do our thinking, our legislating and our ruling for us.
Influences are operating on us with every last breath we
draw which, if we be not vigilant, will sooner or later wipe
out every distinctive characteristic which has hitherto marked
us. Are we prepared for it? In that event, nothing of the
past will be left to the South but a history which will read
like and elegiac poem, nothing for the present but a place
on the maps which our children study, nothing for the future
but a single element of existence- a geographical one. But
can we preserve our identity in the face of the difficulties
which oppose it?
We may do it, by
continuing to wear the badges of mourning befitting a deeply
afflicted people; by consenting to undergo the trials which
distinguish us from a people inflated with material prosperity
rather than abate one jot or tittle of our adhesion to principle;
and by transforming the sufferings endured for freedom's
sake into a discipline which may save our virtues from decay,
and our liberties from extinction. We may do it, by utterly
refusing to participate in any measures, of however great
apparent utility, which require the slightest compromise
of our innermost convictions; by declining to acquiesce where
only to submit is demanded of us; and by preserving a dignified
silence by which we shall signify our resolution, if we may
not act for truth, right and liberty, not to act at all.
We may do it, by instituting peculiar customs and organizations
which will discharge the office of monuments perpetuating
the past; by forming associations of a memorial character
like that whose call gathers us here today; by collecting
and publishing materials for our own history; and by appointing
anniversaries by which if we may not celebrate the attainment
of independence we can at least commemorate the deeds of
men who died for our fundamental liberties and constitutional
rights. We may do it, by scrupulously adhering to the phraseology
of the past- by making it the vehicle for transmitting to
our posterity ideas which once true are true forever, all
opposition to them by brute force to the contrary notwithstanding.
We may do it, by the education we impart to the young; by
making our nurseries, schools and colleges channels for conveying
from generation to generation our own type of thought, sentiment
and opinion; by stamping on the minds of our children principles
hallowed by the blood of patriots, and by leading them with
uncovered heads to gaze upon the grandest monuments the South
can rear to liberty- the headstones which mark the last resting-place
of Southern Volunteers!
But enough! the mournful office which has summoned us hither
waits to be performed. Let us hasten to remove these relics
of unconquered patriots from a strange atmosphere less free
than the air of the sepulchre. And if we have abandoned the
last hope of maintaining their principles, if we are prepared
to give up everything for which they died, let us discharge
this office for them with the feelings of those who are interring
their principles with their bones- of those who are solemnizing
the funeral-rites, and burying the corpse, of Liberty. Let
us place no emblem of hope above their heads, but having in
the silence of death struck the last stroke of the spade upon
their graves, retire from the scene as men withdraw from a
field on which all has been lost.
But if it be our determination that we will cease to cherish
the sacred principles which these men consecrated with their
blood only when we cease to live, then let us, comrades, fellow-citizens,
lovers of liberty, with reverent mien and tender hands consign
all that remains of our brethren to their coveted resting-place
in the bosom of their beloved Carolina. And as we cover them
for their last sleep let us bury with the every proposal to
us to apostatize from their principles, every tendency even
to compromise them, every desire to recover position, wealth
or ease at the sacrifice of honour, virtue and truth. Let us
lay them down in hope; and as each modest stone rears its head
above them, inscribe upon it a Resurgam-
the token of our faith that their principles now trodden into
dust will rise again, the symbol of our invincible resolution
that these men shall not altogether have died in vain.
Heroes of Gettysburg! Champions of constitutional rights! Martyrs
for regulated liberty! Once again, farewell! Descend to your
final sleep with a people's benedictions upon your names! Rest
ye here, Soldiers of a defeated- God grant it may not be a
wholly lost Cause! We may not fire a soldier's salute over
your dust, but the pulses of our hearts beat like muffled drums,
and every deep-drawn sigh breathes a low and passionate requiem.
Memory will keep her guard of honour over your graves; Love
will bedew them with her tears; Faith will draw from them her
inspiration for future sacrifices; and Hope, kindling her torch
at the fires which glow in your ashes, will, in its light,
look forward to a day when a people once more redeemed and
enfranchised will confess that your death was not in vain.
"The Reverend Resurgent of the South
Elmwood Cemetery, Columbia, South Carolina
John L. Girardeau
November 14th, 1825
June 23rd, 1898
he had patiently endured,
he obtained the promise.
Confederate Monument, Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, S.C.
Bronze statue designed by James G. Holmes of the Cadet Rangers,
and sculpted by Ferdinand Von Miller II of the Royal Foundry
in Munich, Germany. Received by the Ladies Memorial Association
Von Miller Family Gravesite, Winthirfriedhof,
Confederate Monument and Soldiers Graves, Magnolia Cemetery
"virgin and invincible"
This Bronze preserves
the memory of the Heroic Dead from every part of Carolina and
from her sister states of the South who fell in the defence
of this city. In proud and grateful remembrance of their devotion,
constancy and valor, who against overwhelming odds by sea and
by land kept Charleston virgin and invincible to the last.
The State Museum’s expanding Civil War in South Carolina
exhibit is getting a face lift. New updates to the exhibit
can be seen on Friday, May 30, which will focus on the coast
of South Carolina, specifically Port Royal, Charleston and
the Union blockade of Charleston Harbor.
Visitors will see small things that were used in everyday life
during the war, including a pipe bowl owned by one of the Drayton
brothers and a small secession flag, as well as larger artifacts
such as ammunition from several types of cannons and mortars
used to defend the coast.
museum began enlarging its permanent exhibit on the
war in 2011, the 150th anniversary of the war’s
beginning, and will continue to add to the expansion
through 2015, with the end of the sesquicentennial observation
of the war.
Proclamation of General Beauregard to Non-Combatants
Headquarters Department, South Carolina,
Georgia, and Florida,
Charleston, S.C., February 18, 1863.
It has become my solemn duty to inform the authorities
and citizens of Charleston and Savannah that the movements
of the enemy's fleet indicate an early land and naval
attack on one or both of these cities; and to urge that
all persons not able to take an active part in the struggle
shall retire. It is hoped, however, that this temporary
separation of some of you from your homes will be made
without alarm or undue haste- thus showing that the
only feeling which animates you in the hour of supreme
trial is the regret of being unable to participate in
the defence of your homes, your altars, and the graves
of your kindred.
Carolinians and Georgians! the hour is a hand to prove
your devotion to your country's cause. Let all able
bodied me, from the sea board to the mountains, rush
to arms. Be not too exacting in the choice of weapons.
Pikes and scythes will do for exterminating your enemies-
spades and shovel for protecting your friends. To arms!
fellow citizens. Come to share with us our dangers,
our brilliant success, or our glorious death.
Sung on the occasion of decorating
the graves of the Confederate dead, at Magnolia Cemetery,
Charleston, S. C., June 16, 1866
By Henry Timrod
Sleep sweetly in your humble graves,
Sleep, martyrs of a fallen cause!—
Though yet no marble column craves
The pilgrim here to pause.
seeds of laurels in the earth,
The garlands of your fame are sown;
And, somewhere, waiting for its birth,
The shaft is in the stone.
your sisters for the years
Which hold in trust your storied tombs,
Bring all they now can give you—tears,
And these memorial blooms.
tributes, but your shades will smile
As proudly on these wreaths to-day,
As when some cannon-moulded pile
Shall overlook this Bay.
angels, hither from the skies!
There is no holier spot of ground,
Than where defeated valor lies
By mourning beauty crowned.
(Source: http://www.gacivilwar.org/timeline; undated)
The Leonidas Polk Memorial Monument
atop Pine Mountain
Erected In the 100th Year Preceding the 2002 Charleston Annunciation
LIEUT. GEN. LEONIDAS
fell on this spot
his arms across his breast,
he stood gazing on the scene below,
turning himself around as if
to take a farewell view.
Thus standing a cannon shot
from the enemy's guns
crashed through his breast,
and opened a wide door
through which his spirit took
its flight to join his comrades
on the other shore.
Surely the earth never
opened her arms to allow
the head of a braver man
to rest upon her bosom.
Surely the light never pushed
back to make
brighter the road that leads
to the lamb.
And surely the gates of heaven
never opened wider to
allow a more manly spirit to
by J. Gid and Mary J. Morris.
5 to 1
General Polk Monument
Pine Mountain, Cobb, Co., Ga.
14th Annual Reunion
United Confederate Veterans
August 28-28, 1912
(Courtesy of Everitt Bowles at http://www.civilwarbadges.com)
James Newton's "Amazing
in OLNEY HYMNS, 1779
AMAZING grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me.
I once was lost, but now am found,
Was blind, but now I see.
grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved.
How precious did that grace appear
The hour I first believed.
many dangers, toils and snares
I have already come;
'Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far
And grace will lead me home.
Lord has promised good to me
His word my hope secures;
He will my shield and portion be,
As long as life endures.
when this flesh and heart shall fail,
And mortal life shall cease,
I shall possess within the veil,
A life of joy and peace.
Courtesy of Rose Taylor
John Henry Cardinal Newman's "The Pillar of
in HYMNS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Vol. XLV, Part 2, Harvard Classics,
At Sea, 16 June 1833
Kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom,
Lead Thou me on!
The night is dark, and I am far from home-
Lead Thou me on!
Keep Thou my feet; I do not ask to see
The distant scene,- one step enough for me.
was not ever thus, nor pray'd that Thou
Shouldst lead me on.
I loved to choose and see my path; but now
Lead Thou me on!
I loved the garish day, and, spite of fears,
Pride ruled my will; remember not past years.
long Thy power hath blest me, sure it still
Will lead me on,
O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till
The night is gone;
And with the morn those angel faces smile
Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile.
"She made her pilgrimage to his grave for the first time.
There, just as she had been carefully instructed, she fulfilled
the Sewanee Cornerstone Prophecy upon his gravestone altar. Immediately
afterwards, she met the right kind of church lady, who, having
made the Cathedral Shrine the family spiritual home, and therefore
could see deeply into the past, told Mary Ware the much needed
revelation: 'The Yankees shot down our Bishop-General on the crest
of Pine Mount while he was saying his prayers for us.' "
-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft
Confederate Veteran, Volume 10, No. 5,
HONORING THE MEMORY OF GEN. L. POLK
The tribute paid to the memory of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk by
J. Gidd Morris and wife of .\Marietta. Ga., in the erection of
a marble shaft twenty feet high on the top of Pine Mountain, Ga.,
on the spot where he was killed, is a notable event in Confederate
history. Comrade Morris is a quiet citizen living on his farm
near Marietta. He is loyal veteran and has for some years sought
to influence the Georgia Division, U. C. V., to erect some tribute
to Gen. Polk. When there was lack of response he determined he
would do it himself. Inquiry of Comrade Morris as to the considerations
brought the following points: The prime motive for the undertaking
was that the Southern people owed this debt to the brave Christian
gentle man and soldier. For years be had sought to influence action
at his state reunions without encouragement. After many conferences
with his patriotic wife he determined to erect it by her help.
It was his idea to do it quietly, but when his enterprise was
found out it determined to make the event a public occasion.
In a letter, comrade Morris stales in part:
When we commenced this two years ago we did not know Gen. P. had
any living relations. Last winter I spoke to Rev. Mr. Pies, a
minister of Marietta, and he wrote to a William Polk, of New York,
in regard to this work, and I received a most beautiful letter
from him. I did nol answer until April 1, and stated that we would
put it up on the 5th. It rained and prevented. A few old veterans
found it out and would have it made public. Since then we have
received letters from two of his daughters, one from New Orleans,
the other from Nashville, and the son in New York, expressing
pressing in beautiful language their heart- felt thanks toward
us S sufficient to fully repay us for all that we did. Nothing
has been done for this in thirty-eight years. It is my native
slate and home county. My father before and after I was born was
a great admirer of James K. Polk, and I learned in time of the
war that Leonidas Polk was a near relative. That and other reasons
that I have neither language, nor time to give, induced the undertaking.
LIEUT. GEN. LEONIDAS POLK
On the front page of this Veteran there are several views of Pine
Mountain and the earth works made there in 1864. They were made
on the day of dedicating the marble shaft erected by Mr. J. Gidd
Morris to the memory of Lieut. Gen. (and Bishop) Leonidas Polk.
There were present several hundred people, and the ceremony was
quite interesting and appropriate. The freshness of the earth
works was amazing. There did not seem to have been a human being
about the spot except to erect this monument and to cut the way
through trees for vehicles. The rains seem to have fallen lightly
upon the earth works. The point is much more elevated than had
been the impression of at least one who recalls the day and the
sad hour that the news of Gen. Polk's death was passed along the
lines. Comrade Morris has sad memories of the war. He says : "The
Yankees in overwhelming numbers came down here and destroyed or
took away the last moveable piece of property of my father, drove
my mother from her home, and killed my brothers on their own soil."
Miss Fannie Morris whose picture is herewith is a daughter of
Mr. and Mrs. Gid Morris.
On the north side is engraved the word "North," and
the following, "Veni, vidi, vici, with five to one."
On the south side of the monument is inscribed the word, "South,"
the Confederate flag, with the dates
1861 and 1865, and the following:
"In memory of Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk,
who fell on this spot on June 14, 1864.
"Folding his arms across his breast he stood gazing
on the scene below, turning himself around as if to
take a farewell view. There standing, a cannon shot
from the enemy's guns crashed through his breast and
opened a wide door through which his spirit took its
flight to join his comrades on the other shore. Surely
the earth never opened her arms to allow the head of
a braver man to rest upon her bosom ; surely the light
never pushed the darkness back to make brighter the
road that leads to the Lamb, and surely the gates of
heaven never' opened wider to allow a more manly
spirit to enter therein.
"Erected by J. Gid and Mary Morris April 10, 1902."
From the monument, which marks the exact spot where Gen. Polk fell, there
is a grand panoramic view for miles in all directions. The trunk
of the chestnut tree which was struck by the shell which glanced
and instantly killed Gen. Polk, is still standing, and nearly every
one present took a piece of wood from it as a souvenir. After the
unveiling "America" was sung by a choir composed of ladies
and men of Marietta, and they also sang "Shall We Gather at
the River?" at the conclusion of the exercises.
Benjamin H. Hill donated to Comrade Morris an acre of land on the apex
of the mountain for the purpose. Addresses were made after a prayer by
Rev. S. R. Belk, eulogizing the high character of Gen. Polk, Capt. W.
J. Hudson, Col. Charles D. Phillips, of Marietta, Gen. A. J. West, of
Atlanta (commanding the U. C. V. in that part of Georgia) by Gen. C.
L. Walker, of South Carolina, and Hon. Henry Richardson, of Atlanta.
A message of gratitude from Gen. Polk's relatives was delivered by a
Mr. Morris, the donor of the monument, in response to calls, made a patriotic
speech. He and his noble wife received the hearty congratulations and
thanks of nearly everybody present. Capt. A. J. West, of Atlanta, helped
to bear the body of Gen. Polk from the spot where he fell. Mrs. T. J.
Hardage, to whose home the remains were taken, was present. She is now
eighty-two years old. She seemed to be much affected by the proceedings.
From Gen. Leonidas Polk's Pockets.
When Gen. Polk was killed on top of Pine Mountain, his body was taken
to Atlanta. A. J. West, Brig. Gen. U. C. V., has a card which was read
at the dedication of the shaft : "In the pockets of Gen. Polk were
found his book of common prayer for the service of the Protestant Episcopal
Church, and four copies of the Rev. R. C. T. Quintard's little work entitled, "Balm
for the Weary and Wounded." Upon the fly leaves of each of these
little volumes, indicating for whom they were intended, were inscribed
the names of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee, and Lieut.
Gen. Hood, with the compliments of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk, June 12,
1864. Within the fourth volume was inscribed his own name. All were saturated
with blood which flowed from the wound."
Milton's "On Time," in POEMS,
envious Time, till thou run out thy race,
Call on the lazy leaden-stepping hours,
Whose speed is but the heavy Plummets pace;
And glut thy self with what thy womb devours,
Which is no more then what is false and vain,
And meerly mortal dross;
So little is our loss,
So little is thy gain.
For when as each thing bad thou hast entomb'd,
And last of all, thy greedy self consum'd,
Then long Eternity shall greet our bliss
With an individual kiss;
And Joy shall overtake us as a flood,
When every thing that is sincerely good
And perfectly divine, With Truth, and Peace, and Love shall ever shine
About the supreme Throne
Of him, t' whose happy-making sight alone,
When once our heav'nly-guided soul shall clime,
Then all this Earthy grosnes quit,
Attir'd with Stars, we shall for ever sit,
Triumphing over Death, and Chance, and thee O Time.
A popular gifted program will get the axe after Ditmas Park
school officials chose diversity over exclusivity.
a lack of diversity, PS 139 Principal
Mary McDonald informed parents in a letter
that the Students of Academic Rigor and
two other in-house programs would no
longer accept applications for incoming
Kindergarten classes will be heterogeneously
grouped to reflect the diversity of our
student body and the community we live
in,” McDonald told parents in a
letter posted on the photo-sharing site
flickr and obtained by Ditmas Park Corner.
From http://hnn.us/article/155552; 5/6/2014:
A white, middle-aged man should not present the remake
of the BBC’s Civilisation, according to a female historian
who said the likes of Kenneth Clark would not be appropriate
for modern viewers.
Amanda Vickery, one of the BBC’s
current crop of history presenters, said
the new version should be gender-balanced.
original Civilisation, broadcast in 1969,
remains a landmark in factual television.
Clark wrote, produced and presented the
documentary series, appearing on screen
immaculately dressed in suit and tie.
One of the foremost art historians of
his day, he guided viewers through the
centuries with a script delivered in
tones of received pronunciation.
Prof Vickery said the idea of a male
presenter dispensing wisdom was outdated.
From http://www.campusreform.org/?ID=5619; 5/14/2014:
The administration at Harvard’s Kennedy
School of Government has agreed to work with students to implement
a “mandatory power and privilege training” as part
of its orientation.
have exciting news to share — the
administration has officially expressed
its desire to collaborate with us on
designing a privilege training component
for Orientation week for every HKS degree
program!” states a post in a Tumblr
page that was dedicated to advocating
for the training.
The post also states that the group, which calls themselves ‘Speak
Out,’ will meet with the Dean some time this week to
secure funding and “make sure this training is institutionalized
the exact stipulations of the training
have not yet been determined, earlier
posts on the page reveal what kind of
topics the group expects the privilege-checking
training to cover.
mandatory power and privilege training
that examines components of race, gender,
socioeconomic class, sexual orientation,
ability, religion, international status,
and power differentials for every incoming
HKS student starting August 2014,” it
post also claimed that this mandatory
training was absolutely necessary for
anyone seeking to be a leader in public
“The exercise of public leadership … requires an honest assessment
of structural power dynamics, of in-group and out-group dynamics, and of privilege,” one
of these posts states.
The Center for Women’s and Gender Studies (CWGS) at the
University of South Carolina Upstate (USCU) will close on July
1 and the funding, previously allocated for CWGS, will be used
to teach the Constitution, Declaration of Independence, and
the center, which hosted a controversial
LGBTQ seminar this spring, will save
USCU $45,000 yearly. Additional cuts
at USCU will total $450,000 from the
university’s budget of $92 million-a
Citing concerns about the "exclusive
nature" of the annual honors night at
Archie R. Cole Middle School, school officials
have decided to scrap the tradition.
students who would normally be recognized
at the annual spring tradition will be
honored during team-based recognition
ceremonies and graduation.
School Changes Heart, Honors Night Back
on the Table after Parent Outcry
notice was sent to parents over the weekend
in an e-mail signed by School Principal
Alexis Meyer and Assistant Principal
of the school community have long expressed
concerns related to the exclusive nature
of Honors Night," the email stated.
having the recognition ceremonies during
team-based ceremonies, it will "afford
us the opportunity to celebrate the individual
and collective success of all students
and their effort, progress and excellence."
A new graduation policy at a Florida high school is causing
at Manatee High School in Bradenton,
Fla., are being required to pay $20 to
participate in the event. And if parents
want a good view of their child receiving
their diploma, the school is charging
$200 for a “premium” seat.
school district said the extra cost is
a means to pay for the ceremony due to
a lack of funds.
parents are calling the whole plan ridiculous.
being discriminatory,” said Mark
Domer. “Economically, socially,
socio-economically, it's just not fair."
is a lot of money for a preferred seating,” said
parent Mayu Fielding. “Is my child
more important than yours?”
district points out other high schools
in Manatee County already charge graduation
fees and the school will waive the $20
charge for students with financial needs.
According to a recent study, the number of college presidents
earning more than $1 million more than doubled in the 2012-2013
study, conducted by the Chronicle of
Higher Education took into account base
salary, bonuses, deferred pay, retirement
and severance. It found that nine presidents
went over the $1 million mark in 2013
while just four presidents made the list
Ohio State president Gordon Gee led the
pack of presidents as he earned $6.1
million while president. Gee is now the
president of West Virginia University
after resigning at Ohio State when he
made several disparaging comments, including
barraging the University of Notre Dame
and Roman Catholics.
other presidents earning more than $1
million include: Bowen Loftin, president
of Texas A&M University at College
Station; Hamid Shirvani, president of
North Dakota University system; Renu
Khator, University of Houston main campus;
Sally Mason, University of Iowa; Michael
McRobbie, Indiana University at Bloomington;
Michael Adams, University of Georgia;
Gordon Moulton, University of South Alabama;
and Mary Sue Coleman, University of Michigan
at Ann Arbor.
The City plans to attack economic segregation
in its affordable housing plan — placing the poor in
middle-class neighborhoods and the more affluent in high-poverty
Preservation and Development Commissioner
Vicki Been said the plan to build 80,000
new affordable apartments and preserve
120,000 units would create a more diverse
really have to make economic diversity
a cornerstone of that plan,” she
said at a City Council budget hearing
means that in some neighborhoods that
have mostly middle or upper-income housing,
that we would need to put affordable
housing at the very lowest income,” she
From http://www.cnbc.com/id/101698390; 5/22/2014:
Expect more U.S. cities to face bankruptcy like Detroit, former
New York Lieutenant Gov. Richard Ravitch told CNBC's "Street
"There are many more [cities] that are facing enormous fiscal squeezes… who
are cutting education, cutting infrastructure investments and borrowing as long
as the bond market permits," he said.
Ravitch, who is advising Detroit's bankruptcy judge, wrote
about his prediction in an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal
"We can expect to see more Detroits," he wrote.
Detroit became the nation's largest city to file for bankruptcy
protection last July after being crushed by $18 billion in
Ravitch said retirement obligations and health-care costs that
are rising faster than inflation are putting enormous pressure
on state budgets. That in turn puts pressure on city budgets.
Additionally, there has been a reduction in federal aid to
states and cities.
Parents of students at North Hill Elementary in Rochester Hills,
Michigan, have reportedly been informed that all students are “winners,” therefore
the “competitive ‘urge to win’ will be kept
to a minimum” at the school’s annual field day.
flyer, flagged by Progressives Today,
reads in part:
The purpose of the day is for our
school to get together for an enjoyable
two hours of activities and provide an
opportunity for students, teachers and
parents to interact cooperatively. Since
we believe that all of our children are
winners, the need for athletic ability
and the competitive “urge to win” will
be kept to a minimum. The real reward
will be the enjoyment and good feelings
Bennett Staph, who claims to be a parent with a child at the
school, reportedly posted a photo of the field day notice on
Facebook. She said she was “proud” of her daughter
for “pointing out the ridiculousness of it.”
am speechless…the ‘urge to
win’ will be kept at a minimum.
What are we teaching our children? Everyone
isn’t a winner, there are winners
and losers. The kids that win and get
awards drive those that don’t to
do better,” Staph wrote, according
to the website.
By taking it to the Supreme Court, they would also be challenging
the Garcetti vs. Ceballos case in 2006 that ruled that government
employees’ First Amendment rights are protected, Adams
said. “[This appeal] shows that they haven’t learned
anything from this experience. The longer this drags it plays
to my advantage.”
don’t think this is about stupidity;
it’s about malice. That’s
"and will produce them again"
From Richard Weaver's consequential THE SOUTHERN
TRADITION AT BAY, 1968, 1971, 1989:
The question of whether one shall stand up for what is near and dear
to him, which is the meaning of all patriotism, or, putting all sentiment
aside, align himself with what is supposed to be the general drift
of humanity, has produced divisions before and will produce them again.
Thus the Civil war becomes only a version of the argument between the
universalists and the particularists, with the Southern soldiers choosing
to defend the part, made dear by nativity and associations.
The backwoods politicians of mid-nineteenth century America were unknowingly
entangled in the great debate of the Schoolmen, with the Southern separatists
playing the part of the Nominalists, and the Northern democrats and
equalitarians that of Realists. This view of the conflict, thought
unfamiliar, is not farfetched, and if all questions resolve themselves
ultimately into metaphysical problems, as is not impossible, it becomes
the philosophical description of the event.
From Frederick Copleston's "The Problem of Universals," in A
HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY: Medieval Philosopy, Volume II, 1962, 1993:
Although what we see and touch are particular things, when we think
these things we cannot help using general ideas and words, as when
we say, 'This particular object which which I see is a tree, and elm
to be precise.' Such a judgement affirms of a particular object that
it is of a certain kind, that it belongs to the genus tree and the
species elm; but it is clear that there may be many other objects besides
the acutal one perceived to which the same terms may be applied, which
may be covered by the same ideas. In other words, objects outside the
mind are individual, whereas condepts are general, universal in character,
in the sense that they apply indifferently to a multitude of individuals.
But, if extramental objects are particular and human concepts universal,
it is clearly of importance to discover the relation holding between
them. If the fact that the subsistent objects are individual and concepts
general means that universal concepts have no foundation in extramental
reality, if the universality of concepts means that they are mere ideas,
thne a rift between thought and objects is created and our knowledge,
so far as it is expressed in universal concepts and judgements, is
of doubtful validity at the very least. The scientist expresses his
knowledge in abstract and universal terms, (for exampe, he does not
make a statement about this particular electron, but about electrons
in general), and if these terms have no foundation in extramental reality,
his science is an arbitrary construction, which has no relation to
reality. In so far indeed as human judgements are of a universal character
or involve universal concepts, as in the statement that this rose is
red, the problem would extend to human knowledge in general, and if
the question as to the existence of an extramental foundation of a
universal concept is answered in the negative, scepticism would result.
Perhaps one of the factors which may give the impression that the mediaevals
were discussing a comparatively unimportant question is this, that
they practically confined their attention to genera and and species
in the category of substance. Not that the problem, even in this restricted
form, is unimportant, but if the problem is raised in regard to the
other categories as well, its implications in regard to at least the
greater part of human knowledge becomes more evident. It becomes clear
that the problem is ultimately the epistemological problem of the relation
of thought to reality.
"rejection of universals"
Nominalism comes in at least two varieties. In one of them it is the
rejection of abstract objects; in the other it is the rejection of
universals. Philosophers have often found it necessary to postulate
either abstract objects or universals. And so Nominalism in one form
or another has played a significant role in the metaphysical debate
since at least the Middle Ages, when versions of the second variety
of Nominalism were introduced. The two varieties of Nominalism are
independent from each other and either can be consistently held without
The nominalist about universals rejects universals — but what
are they? The distinction between particulars and universals is usually
taken to be both exhaustive and exclusive, but whether there is such
a distinction is controversial. The distinction can be drawn in terms
of a relation of instantiation: we can say that something is a universal
if and only if it can be instantiated by more than one entity (whether
it can be instantiated by particulars or universals) — otherwise
it is a particular. Thus while both particulars and universals can
instantiate entities, only universals can be instantiated. If whiteness is
a universal then every white thing is an instance of it. But the things
that are white, e.g. Socrates, cannot have any instances.
about universals typically think that properties
(e.g. whiteness), relations (e.g. betweenness),
and kinds (e.g. gold) are universals. Where do
universals exist? Do they exist in the things
that instantiate them? Or do they exist outside
them? To maintain the second option is to maintain
an ante rem realism about universals.
If universals exist outside their instances then
it is plausible to suppose that they exist outside
space and time. If so, assuming their consequent
causal inertness, universals are abstract objects.
To maintain that universals exist in their instances
is to maintain an in re realism about
universals. If universals exist in their instances,
and their instances exist in space or time, then
it is plausible to think that universals exist
in space or time, in which case they are concrete.
In this case universals can be multiply located,
i.e. they can occupy more than one place at the
same time, for in re universals are
wholly located at each place they occupy (thus
if there is whiteness in re, then such a thing
can be six meters apart from itself).
both on ante rem and in re realism
about universals, universals enjoy a relation
with space very different from that apparently
enjoyed by ordinary objects of experience like
houses, horses and men. For such particulars
are located in space and time and cannot be located
in more than one place at the same time. But
universals are either not located in space or
else they can occupy more than one place at the
A final version of Nominalism is Resemblance Nominalism.
According to this theory, it is not that scarlet things resemble one
another because they are scarlet, but what makes them scarlet is that
they resemble one another. Thus what makes something scarlet is that
it resembles the scarlet things. Similarly, what makes square things
square is that they resemble one another, and so what makes something
square is that it resembles the square things. Resemblance is fundamental
and primitive and so either there are no properties or the properties
of a thing depend on what things it resembles.
on one version of the theory a property like being
scarlet is a certain class whose members
satisfy certain definite resemblance conditions.
On another version of the theory there are no
properties, but what makes scarlet things scarlet
is that they satisfy certain resemblance conditions.
KENNESAW — The Georgia Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans
is restoring Confederate monuments and historical markers across the
state, including the Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk monument at Pine Mountain
Erected in 1902, the marble monument has suffered from time, pollution
and even vandalism over the course of more than a century. With $6,000
in funding from the sale of SCV specialty tags, the nonprofit organization
was able to restore the monument back to its original condition.
Smyrna-based Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk chapter of
the Georgia SCV led the restoration effort.
Polk was the only lieutenant general killed outside
of Virginia in the entire Confederate Army,” said
Martin O’Toole, past chapter commander.
was the highest ranking Confederate officer to
be killed outside the state of Virginia and he
was only equal by two others; that’s Gens.
A.P. Hill and Stonewall Jackson.”
monument was restored by conservation and restoration
experts at Acworth-based Ponsford, Ltd., who
have also performed similar work at Arlington
National Cemetery in Virginia. A small fence
surrounding the monument and a historical marker
are in the process of being completed.
state SCV is erecting and restoring monuments,
and replacing and marking Confederate headstones
throughout the state as part of the organization’s
Civil War sesquicentennial awareness efforts.
projects include an $18,000 renovation to a historical
walkway in the Marietta Confederate Cemetery
and the erection of a new Confederate monument
at Allatoona Pass Battlefield near the borderline
of Cobb and Bartow counties.
lot of the money comes from donations within
our organization, but the big bulk of it comes
from our specialty license tags,” said
Smyrna resident Tim Pilgrim, state SCV adjutant.
North Carolina native, Polk was a founder of
the University of the South and served as an
Episcopal bishop prior to the Civil War, earning
him the nickname “The Fighting Bishop.” According
to historians, he was on Pine Mountain with a
group of Confederate officers, scouting Union
positions, when he was fatally struck by a 3-inch
shell on June 14, 1864.
monument, which consists of a marble shaft, is
said to be located in the same spot Polk was
to Fred Bentley Sr., who owns the property, he
was told by Mr. Guy Northcutt Sr. that Guy Northcutt
Sr. was there when they dedicated the marker
in 1902 and that an old Confederate veteran was
sitting there under one of the trees and came
over and told him that they got it exactly right,
that ‘that is exactly where Gen. Polk fell
because I was here when he was killed,’” O’Toole
the Polk monument is located on private property
it is nonetheless open to the public, according
to the Georgia Division of the Sons of Confederate
Polk Monument, New Year's Eve, 2008
Final Day of Sewanee's Sesqui-Centennial Era (1856-1858 to 2006-2008);
Christmas Break, Closing Ceremonies, FSC of LPMS
June 14, 2010:
Shrine Altar Preparatory Liturgical Ceremony for upcoming Consecration
The Leonidas Polk Memorial Society's First Sewanee Chapter
upon Cornerstone Memorial, Louisiana Circle, Sewanee;
scheduled for and completed on Sesqui-Centennial
October 10, 2010.
Annual Memorial Service
Hosted by the General Leonidas Polk Camp #1445, Cobb County,
Smyrna, Fighting 12th Brigade, Georgia Division, Army of Tennessee,
Sons of Confederate Veterans
June 26, 2004
Memorial Service atop Pine Mountain for 140th anniversary of
Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Christian martyrdom by Federal
Service: modified version of "The Order for the Burial
of the Dead," conducted for the reposing of the soul of
Liturgy: officiant Father John Roddy; from the "Book of
Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church in the Confederate States
Hallowing: sanctifying blessing by Fr. Roddy.
June 25, 2005
May/June, 2007, page 4.
145th Anniversary Memorial Service
Reb mortar fire in direction of enemy lines.
Honoring South Carolina atop Pine Mountain
Evening Memorial Service,
St. Hilda of Whitby's Anglo-Catholic Church, Atlanta
Prelude Anniversary to subsequent Saturday, June 14, 2014,
and the Sesqui-Centennial of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's
Dignitaries with Newly Unveiled Historical Marker
"Train up a child in the way he should go:
and when he is old, he will not depart from it."
-Proverbs 22:6, KJV
June 14, 1864 - June 14, 2014
SCV Camp #1446:
“You Yankees…Have Killed Our General Polk!” The
Death Of Leonidas Polk
Monday, June 09, 2014
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National
Military Park invites the public to attend
a special 45 minute walk and talk at
10 a.m. on Saturday. This program will
focus on the 150th anniversary of the
death of Confederate General Leonidas
Polk. Program participants are asked
to meet at the Chickamauga Battlefield
Visitor Center, 3370 LaFayette Road.
the afternoon of June 14, 1864, an
was issued to the Confederate
Army of Tennessee saying, “Comrades,
you are called upon to mourn your first
captain, your oldest companion in arms,
Lieutenant General Polk.
fell today at the outpost of the army….
His example is before you his mantle rests
upon you.” Leonidas Polk was known
as the “Bishop General,” having
exchanged his robes for the uniform of
a soldier at the first sign of hostility
in 1861. Although beloved by his troops,
he was noted for his shortcomings as a
battlefield commander and his divisive
scheming in army politics. Come learn about
the fascinating life and the gruesome death
of General Polk during this special program.
Comfortable footwear and water are recommended
for this program.
more information, contact the National Park Service,
Lookout Mountain Battlefield Visitor Center at (423)
821-7786, the Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center
at (423) 752-5213, or visit the park’s website
Here's a memorial image I created tonight in honor of
who was killed on Pine Mountain, near Kennesaw,
GA, on this day 150 years ago.
From http://ruminatewithrick.blogspot.com; 6/14/2014:
The only Event on Sesqui-Centennial Day of Mourning
his University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee;
a Domainian Highest Holy Day, Trinity Term.
ABDIEL'S "Our Shrine
on Summer Solstice," in The Resurgametica:
Our paladin community finds its own way to the intimate
Standing at the imprint of our fallen chieftan,
we welcome the arising within us of reasserted fundamental
instinct: respecting refined priority; dignifying revivified
identity; regenerating purified integrity.
from Abraham Cowley's
"Hymn: To Light," in WORKS,1668:
A Crimson Garment in the Rose thou wear'st;
A Crown of studded Gold thou bear'st,
The Virgin Lillies in their White,
Are clad but with the Lawn of almost Naked Light.
To me the Sun is more delighful far,
And all fair Dayes much fairer are.
But few, ah wondrous few there be,
Who do not Gold prefer, O Goddess, ev'n to Thee.
But the vast Ocean of unbounded Day
In th' Empyræan Heaven does stay.
Thy Rivers, Lakes, and Springs below
From thence took first their Rise, thither at last must Flow.
LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA,
The difference between an obelisk and a cenotaph is notable,
but also reinforcing of how the Polk monument speaks
to us with the sublimity worthy of its subject.
ancient Egyptians, back when
they more resembled the blonde
Greeks than they do today,
symbolized a ray of sunlight
by constructing a tall, pointed
obelisk. The object was in
praise and thanksgiving of
what the Sun does for us all.
We are dependant upon its light.
For us, the obelisk represents the spreading effect of
light emitting from one highest source at the apex of
the triangle-shape positioned at the top of the tapering
shaft. The symbolism is two-fold: light descends and
spreads for us, and we, here down below, look upward
toward the beam's origin and find a single highest point
as the source.
The obelisk shows us both what is given and from where
given, thus putting us in proper relationship with our
When J. Gid Morris and his wife chose the monument for
honoring Leonidas Polk's death in battle, they naturally
selected a shaft of marble adapted from, and corresponding
in the main outline, to the obelisk's shape. Through
this design, the Morris family was sharing with us the
inspiring message: Polk's light spreads for us, and we
look upward and find the highest point, and thereby we
recall into memory his commanding leadership in natural
Since the monument is a memorial to someone who is buried
elsewhere, we can also apply the cenotaph description.
Signifying that here, far from his actual gravestone,
was erected a stone of declaration telling ourselves
how how he, the man himself, is a monument of significance
to us. Our respect for him is deep and eternal. We come
here and remember, through temporal substance, that which
can never erode or decay. This is an empty tomb memorial-
We can look southward from Pine Mountain for our other
examples of how the meaning of obelisk and cenotaph intersect.
The highly acclaimed Georgia architectural firm, Hentz,
Reid and Adler, placed an obelisk above elaborate floral
elements on the face of the Villa Albacini in Macon,
Georgia. The owner of the house was an enterprising businessman
who owned a successful plant nursery.
Reid honored his success by incorporating flower garlands
into the decoration. Perched at the top of the roof line
is a small obelisk directly above the flowers, signifying
a ray from the Sun which nourishes and make possible
life, growth, and beauty.
In downtown Macon, stands a monument to the Women of
the South who supported, suffered, and endured during
War for Southern Freedom. It is capped with a tall obelisk.
There are no women buried there, so the monument honors
the women as an empty tomb cenotaph.
Likewise, the Polk monument is an obelisk that can be
referred to as an cenotaph- the monument is both. Depending
upon the occasion, choosing which term is an art of emphasis
in the sublime and connecting narrative of honor across
Villa Allbacini, North Macon, Georgia
Monument to the Women of the South,
Downtown Macon, Georgia
Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et
delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore
Sisto V fatte dal Cavallier Domenico
Fontana Architetto di sua Santita Libro
Written by Domenico Fontana
(Swiss, Melide 1543–1607 Rome)
Designer: Illustrations designed by Domenico
Fontana (Swiss, Melide 1543–1607
Illustrations etched by Natale Bonifacio
Publisher: Published by Domenico Basa
Works commissioned by Pope Sixtus V (Felice
Peretti) (Italian, Grottamare
near Pescara 1520–1590 Rome)
From Histoire dv roy Lovis le Grand,
par les medailles,
Robert Mills' Washington Monument,
Vinnie Ream's Washington Monument, 1876-1878
From Rudyard Kipling's "London Stone," November
What is the tie betwixt us two
That must last our whole lives through?
“As I suffer, so do you.”
That may ease the grieving.
Wakefield Cenotaph, West Yorkshire, England
Monument, Pretoria, South Africa
October 12, 2013:
Shortly subsequent Sesqui-Centennial Chickamauga
Reenactment and Celebration of
Generals Polk and Longstreet's
victory over Rosecrans and of duPont Library
altar icon revelation;
Shrine Altar Ceremony for Domainian Liturgical Advancement;
prepartory to sudden Parsifalian Revelation of the Great Seal
of Leonidas Polk's University of the South
in All Saint's Chapel,
THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:
Just like we make the world safe for democracy
today by bombing defenseless women and children in other countries,
Lincoln restored us to the liberty of unity with his Northern
states by invading the South with the world's most powerfully
Then his Federal army killed so many of us- enough of us, really-
that the rest of us remaining are now free to pledge allegiance
to the American flag and free to hear our own children recite
the required catechism of the ugly new National Faith: "Abraham
Lincoln was our greatest president." Our children are now
"free" to call their Rebel ancestors "traitors"
in Federally regulated public schools.
Stating the obvious in these terms will put you under supsicion
of "neo-Confederate bias," or worse. But what other
terms would be more accurate?
Even asking that question will be "deemed questionable,"
and quickly become "a cause for concern," and then become
"deeply troubling," and then it's off the races where
the next outrage outdoes the last. The ruse is obvious,
but you better not point it out in class at Sewanee. There are
limits to our so-called "full freedom of inquiry" up
here. The boundaries to these limits are marked by the word "sensitivity."
You know what I'm talking about. I know you heard what happened
when that preppy fraternity boy- the blonde one who was wearing
a bright bow-tie and whale shorts, who was maybe a little dutch-fortified
with gin- the one who underwent extensive re-training
and now does and says all the approved and required things-
one who "passionately embraces change" and overcomes
uncertainty "by stepping out of my comfort zone"-
the one who insists we must now "always say yes to
that one- the one who had said "check
your victim privilege"
to a certain group of uninvited visitors one night at the SAE
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