Martyr's Shrine atop Pine Mountain,
Kennesaw, Georgia


Louella Josephine Taylor, in THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

They won't tell you this at Sewanee like they told us, but our Bishop-General died the only way a man should die- fighting his enemies.

His enemies and our enemies are the same; so, of course, he died for us. He was the only Chancellor and President of the Board of Trustees of The University of the South who was killed while fighting for the same freedoms that inspired his founding Sewanee for us.

With passionate intensity he kept himself connected to our lives up at Sewanee. When his memory visited, we found ourselves asking, "What splendid arousal of natural instinct do I now feel in my heart, what arising of courage to meet the perils of this new era? What bright light is this that shows us the path and helps us make the turn? What rising voice of conscience is this that tells us of the darkening future?'

Those were the questions leading to the mandate of our new redemption- our unvanquished and distinctive identity. Who we were at Sewanee proved that his death was not in vain.

Memory, as simple a thing as it is, is a vital prayer, a ritual of righteousness. His dignified memory was our Higher Law of the best kind truth, fairness, justice, ethics, and morality, and of our local honor and particular secrets, because he died for Christ's special love for us in that one place. His work emphasized that one special community. Standing strong with him was our strong stand for our heroic ancestors who loved our liberty and freedom more than they loved life itself. An invocation such as that will last forever.

Plenty of news comes our way about what's going on in Sewanee these days. New Orleans has a magnetic pull upon the Sewanee aura. We can see it and read it like blue-eyed Swedes can see and read their borealis. Even though some up there don't want us to know, they can't stop us from knowing, and we make the right judgments about the news.

There are no valid sustainability initiatives which begin without him, because anything that doesn't honor him at Sewanee puts unique culture in peril and isn't worth sustaining. Intolerance of his grandeur should be unwelcome up there, just like we won't allow it down here.

At Sewanee, we thrived on gratitude, and we scorned all else, as we should have.

He did as he ought to have done, and so must we do so now, especially you two. Gratitude is our first obligation, and failure to meet that responsibility divides all others away from true Domainians.

When did you two young gentlemen say you were due back up the Mountain? I have something I want you to take back to Sewanee with you when you go.


Pine Mountain Salient

"Our Southern Golgotha"


Bishop-General Leonidas Polk atop Pine Mountain, June 14,1864;
by Wilbur G. Kurtz, 1966, courtesy of the Secrist Museum.


Pine Mountain under Federal artillery attack,
Frank Leslie's Illustrated's THE SOLIDER IN OUR CIVIL WAR, 1885.


"Rebel General Polk Killed."

-Headline in the St. Louis Republican as reprinted in the Cincinnati Daily Enquirer,
Thursday morning, June 23, 1864


"Thus, died on of the grandest, noblest, and bravest Generals of the war. He was respected, loved and mourned by the whole army and country."

-T.J. Walker (ca. 1844-1920), REMINISCENCES OF THE CIVIL WAR, undated


Georgia Historical Commission marker 033-20 on Burnt Hickory Road, Kennesaw, Georgia:


G.W. Hardage house; June 10-14, 1864. After withdrawing his corps from Lost Mtn. June 9, Polk's H'dq'rs. were at the John Kirk house 1 mi. W. on this rd. June 10, h'dq'rs. were moved to Hardage house. Sun. June 12, The Bishop-General read the church service (Episcopal) for his staff, escort, and the Hardage family. June 14, Polk rode with Johnston, Hardee & others to Pine Mtn. to inspect Bate's line at that advanced outpost.   While there, Polk was killed by a Federal shell.


"One of their Corps commanders (Bishop Polk) had been instantly killed by a shell on the summit of Pine Mountain, and the insurgent armies had suffered fearful losses in that terrible struggle."



Site of the Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Martyrdom

One Man, Three Leaders, Killed in Action:

First Bishop of Louisiana

Founder & Chancellor of The University of the South

Lieutenant-General, Confederate Army of Tennessee
Commanding Army of Mississippi

Pine Mountain, Kennesaw


Lt. Gen. Polk with Gen. Joe Johnston and Lt. Gen. William J.Hardee,
both of whom were with Polk on the crest of Pine Mountain;
courtesy of Fred Bentley, Sr., gracious steward of the Leonidas Polk monument.



Georgia Historical Commission marker 033-24 on Beaumont Drive, Pine Mountain, Kennesaw, Georgia (top), and Georgia Historical Commission marker 033-23 on Stilesboro Road, Kennesaw, Georgia (bottom); marker locations should be swapped- Stilesboro Road marker should be on Pine Mountain at the entrance to Polk Monument:


June 10, 1864. The 4th A.C. moved from Mars Hill Ch. to position along this road facing S. Toward Pine Mtn. - highest pont between Lost & Kennesaw Mtns. The 14th A.C. was on the left: the 20th on the right. Pine Mtn. was fortified and held as an outpost of the main Confederate line 1.25 mils S. - the line that extended from Lost Mtn. to Brushy Mtn. - June 5-15. June 14. Generals Johnston, Hardee & Polk, while observing Federal lines from Pine Mtn., were fired upon by the 4th and 20th Corps batteries. Gen. Leonidas Polk was killed by a shell.



The wooded know W. was a fortified outpost. 1.25 miles north of Johnston's intrenched line from Lost to Brush Mountains, June 5-15, 1864. Pine Mountain was held by Bate's Division of Hardee's A.C., 5th Co. Washington Artillery of N. Orleans & Lt. R.T. Beauregard's S. Carolina Battery. June 14. While observing Federal lines with Generals Johnston and Hardee, General Polk was killed by a shell from a Federal battery- identity of which is not certain. The outpost was abandoned the next day and withdrawn to the main line.


Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Museum

From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

After our pilgrimage up to the Polk monument, we visited the museum at Kennesaw Battlefield. There we were horrified at the picture they displayed depicting Leonidas Polk in his moment of death. It seemed prurient, especially when we remembered that we were at a Federal building and recalled all the oppression and exploitation suffered by the Georgians during and since the War. It was a distasteful and inappropriate triumphalism- a real slap in the face. We condemned their offensive and appalling lack of sensitivity.

Then we received the revelation, as we often do when we most need it. It came to us suddenly: They were showing Polk in his critical moment of royal passion.

The manipulated and colluding Romans used thorns, whips, nails, and a spear to kill our Jesus atop Golgotha. We don't shrink from images of Christ crucified; we kneel before them as we prayerfully remember his suffering fatal torture for our eternal salvation.

The Federal Yankees used a cannon and artillery shell to victimize and kill our mighty Confederate Warrior-Priest atop Pine Mountain. If they wanted to remind us of the violent crime they committed against our tragedic and holiest of Southern leaders, then we will welcome their honesty.


Ivan Ilyich Glazunov's Crucify him! Crucify him!,
1994, at Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow, Russia


From John Donne's "LA CORONA," circa 1607:


By miracles exceeding power of man,
He faith in some, envy in some begat,
For, what weak spirits admire, ambitious hate:
In both affections many to Him ran.
But O ! the worst are most, they will and can,
Alas ! and do, unto th' Immaculate,
Whose creature Fate is, now prescribe a fate,
Measuring self-life's infinity to span,
Nay to an inch. Lo ! where condemned He
Bears His own cross, with pain, yet by and by
When it bears him, He must bear more and die.
Now Thou art lifted up, draw me to Thee,
And at Thy death giving such liberal dole,
Moist with one drop of Thy blood my dry soul.

John Donne (1572 - 1631),"Holy Sonnets":


Spit in my face you Jewes, and pierce my side,
Buffet, and scoffe, scourge, and crucifie mee,
For I have sinn'd, and sinn'd, and onely hee,
Who could do no iniquitie, hath dyed:
But by my death can not be satisfied
My sinnes, which passe the Jewes impiety:
They kill'd once an inglorious man, but I
Crucifie him daily, being now glorified.
Oh let mee then, his strange love still admire:
Kings pardon, but he bore our punishment.
And Jacob came cloth'd in vile harsh attire
But to supplant, and with gainfull intent:
God cloth'd himselfe in vile mans flesh, that so
Hee might be weake enought to suffer woe.

John Donne's "The Cross":

SINCE Christ embraced the cross itself, dare I
His image, th' image of His cross, deny?
Would I have profit by the sacrifice,
And dare the chosen altar to despise?
It bore all other sins, but is it fit
That it should bear the sin of scorning it?
Who from the picture would avert his eye,
How would he fly his pains, who there did die ?
From me no pulpit, nor misgrounded law,
Nor scandal taken, shall this cross withdraw,
It shall not, for it cannot; for the loss
Of this cross were to me another cross.
Better were worse, for no affliction,
No cross is so extreme, as to have none.
Who can blot out the cross, with th' instrument
Of God dew'd on me in the Sacrament?
Who can deny me power, and liberty
To stretch mine arms, and mine own cross to be?
Swim, and at every stroke thou art thy cross;
The mast and yard make one, where seas do toss;
Look down, thou spiest out crosses in small things;
Look up, thou seest birds raised on crossed wings;
All the globe's frame, and spheres, is nothing else
But the meridians crossing parallels.
Material crosses then, good physic be,
But yet spiritual have chief dignity.
These for extracted chemic medicine serve,
And cure much better, and as well preserve.
Then are you your own physic, or need none,
When still'd or purged by tribulation;
For when that cross ungrudged unto you sticks,
Then are you to yourself a crucifix.
As perchance carvers do not faces make,
But that away, which hid them there, do take;
Let crosses, so, take what hid Christ in thee,
And be His image, or not His, but He.
But, as oft alchemists do coiners prove,
So may a self-despising get self-love;
And then, as worst surfeits of best meats be,
So is pride, issued from humility,
For 'tis no child, but monster; therefore cross
Your joy in crosses, else, 'tis double loss.
And cross thy senses, else both they and thou
Must perish soon, and to destruction bow.
For if the eye seek good objects, and will take
No cross from bad, we cannot 'scape a snake.
So with harsh, hard, sour, stinking; cross the rest ;
Make them indifferent; call, nothing best.
But most the eye needs crossing, that can roam,
And move; to th' others th' objects must come home.
And cross thy heart; for that in man alone
Pants downwards, and hath palpitation.
Cross those dejections, when it downward tends,
And when it to forbidden heights pretends.
And as the brain through bony walls doth vent
By sutures, which a cross's form present,
So when thy brain works, ere thou utter it,
Cross and correct concupiscence of wit.
Be covetous of crosses; let none fall;
Cross no man else, but cross thyself in all.
Then doth the cross of Christ work faithfully
Within our hearts, when we love harmlessly
That cross's pictures much, and with more care
That cross's children, which our crosses are.

From William Shakespeare's
Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Tragedy,

1603, 1623:


Ophelia, walk you here. Gracious, so please you,
We will bestow ourselves.


Read on this book;
That show of such an exercise may colour
Your loneliness. We are oft to blame in this,-
'Tis too much proved- that with devotion's visage
And pious action we do sugar o'er
The devil himself.


[Aside] O, 'tis too true!
How smart a lash that speech doth
give my conscience!
The harlot's cheek, beautied with plastering art,
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it
Than is my deed to my most painted word:
O heavy burthen!


I hear him coming: let's withdraw, my lord.




To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pith and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action. Soft you now!
The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy orisons
Be all my sins remember'd.


Good my lord,
How does your honour for this many a day?


I humbly thank you; well, well, well.


My lord, I have remembrances of yours,
That I have longed long to re-deliver;
I pray you, now receive them.



It shall be so:
Madness in great ones must not unwatch'd go.

"a boot stamping on a human face"

From George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, 1949:

"I told you, Winston,'' he said, ''that metaphysics is not your strong point. The word you are trying to think of is solipsism. But you are mistaken. This is not solipsism. Collective solipsism, if you like. But that is a different thing: in fact, the opposite thing. All this is a digression,'' he added in a different tone. ''The real power, the power we have to fight for night and day, is not power over things, but over men.'' He paused, and for a moment assumed again his air of a schoolmaster questioning a promising pupil: ''How does one man assert his power over another, Winston?''

Winston thought. ''By making him suffer,'' he said.

''Exactly. By making him suffer. Obedience is not enough. Unless he is suffering, how can you be sure that he is obeying your will and not his own? Power is in inflicting pain and humiliation. Power is in tearing human minds to pieces and putting them together again in new shapes of your own choosing. Do you begin to see, then, what kind of world we are creating? It is the exact opposite of the stupid hedonistic Utopias that the old reformers imagined. A world of fear and treachery is torment, a world of trampling and being trampled upon, a world which will grow not less but more merciless as it refines itself. Progress in our world will be progress towards more pain. The old civilizations claimed that they were founded on love or justice. Ours is founded upon hatred. In our world there will be no emotions except fear, rage, triumph, and self-abasement. Everything else we shall destroy everything. Already we are breaking down the habits of thought which have survived from before the Revolution. We have cut the links between child and parent, and between man and man, and between man and woman. No one dares trust a wife or a child or a friend any longer. But in the future there will be no wives and no friends. Children will be taken from their mothers at birth, as one takes eggs from a hen. The sex instinct will be eradicated. Procreation will be an annual formality like the renewal of a ration card. We shall abolish the orgasm. Our neurologists are at work upon it now. There will be no loyalty, except loyalty towards the Party. There will be no love, except the love of Big Brother. There will be no laughter, except the laugh of triumph over a defeated enemy. There will be no art, no literature, no science. When we are omnipotent we shall have no more need of science. There will be no distinction between beauty and ugliness. There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life. All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But always- do not forget this, Winston- always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face- for ever.''


From; 5/27/2014:

For those who can read the writing on the wall, it’s all starting to make sense.

All signs point to the fact that “we the people” have become enemies of the state: the military drills carried out in major American cities, the VIPR inspections at train depots and bus stations, the SWAT team raids on unsuspecting homeowners; the Black Hawk helicopters patrolling American skies, the massive ammunition purchases by various federal agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Education, the IRS and the Social Security Administration; the government’s increasing use of involuntary commitment laws to declare individuals mentally ill and lock them up in psychiatric wards for extended periods of time.

There’s also the profit-driven corporate incentive to jail Americans in private prisons; the criminalizing of such relatively innocent activities as holding Bible studies in one’s home or sharing unpasteurized goat cheese with members of one’s community; and the detention facilities, whether private prisons or FEMA internment camps, which have already been built and are waiting to lock up the troublemakers.

Indeed, it’s no longer a question of whether the government will lock up Americans for innocuous behavior but when.


"make sacrifices"

From; 4/14/2011:

"We don't have to choose between a future of spiraling debt and one where we forfeit investments in our people and our country," [Barak Obama] said. "To meet our fiscal challenge, we will need to make reforms. We will all need to make sacrifices. But we do not have to sacrifice the America we believe in. And as long as I'm president, we won't."


Allen Mendenhall, "A Second Look," Chronicles, June 2014:

"We have reached a terrifying moment when the Department of Defense seeks to brainwash our troops into believing that Catholics and evangelical Christians are, like those whoh rever the Founding Fathers, potential terrorists; when teh Federal Communications Commission seeks to control which stories newsrooms may run; when the Transportation Security Administration daily collects nude photographs of American citizens; when teh Internal Revenue Service targest targets certain groups because of their politcal beliefs; when teh National Security  Agency gathers untold amounts of data on Americans through mass surveillance programs; when the president declares his supremacy over the othe  other branches of government; and when teh Supreme Court issues opinons that no longer have anything to do with the Constitution it allegedly upholds. What other practical, constitutional remedies are we left besides an Article V conventino? True, and Article V convention may not work, but I've heard no better options, except, perhaps, secession and nullificaiton, both of which seem equallyunlikely to succeed in the current climate.


One the most important issue, I agree with Professor Quirk: the essential problem isn't structural but cultural. No government, constution, orlaw can save a country that isn't virtuous.


"willing to sacrifice"

Michelle Obama, from; 11/26/2011

It's going to cost us something as a society to say, 'We can't tolerate millions of people uninsured. We can't tolerate it.' But in order for all of us to get a little bit more, a whole bunch of us are going to have to give up a little something that we have. And that's not, sort of, what we've been taught…

Alright, so if you have a leader like Barack, who is saying, 'Yes, we know how much this is gonna cost--it's gonna cost us billions, but we can do it,' what are we willing to sacrifice to make that sure we have the resources to do it?…

But that's--that's the mindset that has to change, with what does it mean to live in a society, what does it mean to be an American, and what kind of sacrifice do we all have to make?...

What Barack says: 'We all have the work to do,' you know. It's not just about changing the person in the White House, but it's about changing out mindset, what we're willing to sacrifice, even our own individual selves.


"change our traditions"

From; 10/1/2013:

"We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America.”    

-Barack Obama, October 30, 2008

“We are going to have to change our conversation; we’re going to have to change our traditions, our history; we’re going to have to move into a different place as a nation.”   

-Michelle Obama, May 14, 2008

_____; 5/30/2104:

As many as 227 million Americans may be compelled to disclose intimate details of their families and financial lives -- including their Social Security numbers -- in a new national database being assembled by two federal agencies.

The Federal Housing Finance Agency and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau posted an April 16 Federal Register notice of an expansion of their joint National Mortgage Database Program to include personally identifiable information that reveals actual users, a reversal of previously stated policy.


The database will also encompass a mortgage holder’s entire credit history, including delinquent payments, late payments, minimum payments, high account balances and credit scores, according to the notice.

The two agencies will also assemble “household demographic data,” including racial and ethnic data, gender, marital status, religion, education, employment history, military status, household composition, the number of wage earners and a family’s total wealth and assets.


Cordray in his testimony told the House, "We’re making every effort to be very careful" but he could not promise there would never be a data breach.

Neugebauer said the hacker threat is real. "If someone were to breach that system, they could very easily steal somebody’s identity."

Meyster said she doubts the government can protect the data. “We’re essentially concerned that these government systems don’t have the necessary precautions to make sure that individual consumers are identified through the database,” she said.

Computerized theft of government and commercial data is a major concern for federal officials. Indictments were made public last week for five Chinese military members who allegedly hacked into the computer systems of six American corporations.

A December report from the Government Accountability Office on breaches containing personally identifiable information from federal databases shows unlawful data breaches have doubled, from 15,140 reported incidents in 2009 to 22,156 in 2012.


From; 5/30/2014:

When a District Super tells concerned parents that Rigor is about higher standards and provides the metaphor that you cannot turn up the temperature suddenly on an oven from 350 to 550 without burning the turkey and leaving it frozen on the inside, I think that explanation deserves a Pinocchio award. That example of rigor may make parents feel better about upcoming higher than average failure rates on the new state Common Core math assessments, but it does not accurately reflect the nature of the problem. Rigor is about what a student feels, perceives, and does when there is no single correct answer or there are insufficient facts stated to reach a definitive conclusion or the asked about material has never been taught. It provides superb behavioral science data on likely future actions and it primes students to be willing to act in the face of uncertainty. Just what people with visions of transforming and then redesigning societies and societies around Big Data need from a compliant, malleable citizenry.


When the “challenge for educators” now is announced to be creating “settings that can help young people develop as thoughtful, caring, compassionate, and responsible citizens,” the vision of citizenry is to be Change Agents for Transformation. That is also blatantly a view of education that is primarily focused on Psychosocial Development, not knowledge as academic content. Students are to be deliberately primed, at a deep level, to be unwilling to accept the world as it now exists.


Jumping to the punch line, FHAO intentionally uses the horrors of the Holocaust and Legal Segregation by race in the US to justify a belief that economic, redistributive, justice, if desired by a majority of current voters, is a perfectly legitimate demand binding everyone. Resistance then becomes akin to the racism that surrounded the Little Rock 9 trying to integrate Arkansas schools in the 50s. FHAO is the perfect accompaniment to the communitarian focus we have already located in the required Positive School Climate for all K-12 schools and lurking oddly in the definition of what it means to be Career Ready under the Common Core. FHAO early on specifically instructs students:

“communities are not built of friends, or groups of friends, or of people with similar styles and tastes, or even of people who like and understand each other. They are built of people who feel they are part of something that is bigger than themselves: a shared goal or enterprise [hence all the hype on collaboration now]…To build a community requires only the ability to see value in others; to look at them and see a potential partner in one’s enterprise…community can also be defined in terms of a ‘universe of obligation’ –a group of individuals or groups ‘toward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules apply, and whose injuries call for amends.”


Should students be taught that “Built into each individual’s experience must be an occasion for giving, a task of humanity, an act of sharing and sacrifice”?

Is that really Student Achievement? Growth? Should taxpayer-funded education administrators and profs really be making these decisions in a free society?

Or is the disputed nature of freedom itself in the 21st Century the real question?


From; 6/1/2014:

The National Security Agency is harvesting huge numbers of images of people from communications that it intercepts through its global surveillance operations for use in sophisticated facial recognition programs, according to top-secret documents.

The spy agency’s reliance on facial recognition technology has grown significantly over the last four years as the agency has turned to new software to exploit the flood of images included in emails, text messages, social media, videoconferences and other communications, the N.S.A. documents reveal. Agency officials believe that technological advances could revolutionize the way that the N.S.A. finds intelligence targets around the world, the documents show. The agency’s ambitions for this highly sensitive ability and the scale of its effort have not previously been disclosed.

The agency intercepts “millions of images per day” — including about 55,000 “facial recognition quality images” — which translate into “tremendous untapped potential,” according to 2011 documents obtained from the former agency contractor Edward J. Snowden. While once focused on written and oral communications, the N.S.A. now considers facial images, fingerprints and other identifiers just as important to its mission of tracking suspected terrorists and other intelligence targets, the documents show.


"it's not really yours"; 6/6/2014:

Most of our young people don’t know a heck of a lot, if anything, about these things, but they certainly know about Harriet Tubman and Rosa Parks, so they’ve actually got a highly manipulated view of history, a kind of programmed narrative of American shame, and the reason for that is that they are being prepared for a political and financial shakedown. So in other words, if you want the federal government to come to Americans and take their stuff, and you want to prevent Americans from objecting, you’ve got to try to convince them that their stuff isn’t theirs in the first place: that it’s been stolen, that their ancestors stole it, that if history had been fair, they wouldn’t have this big house and this nice couch and this big-screen TV and this nice car. So the government has every right to confiscate it because it’s not really yours.

_____; 6/6/2014:

Young people willingly give-up their privacy on Google and Facebook because they have not read George Orwell’s ‘1984’ unlike previous generations, a leading academic has warned.

Noel Sharkey, professor of artificial intelligence and robotics at Sheffield University, said that large corporations were hovering up private information and modern generations did not realize it was wrong.

He said that older people who had grown up reading George Orwell’s 1984 about ‘Big Brother technology and ‘ authoritarianism’, were in a better position to resist the creeping erosion of privacy.

Professor Sharkey, speaking at Cheltenham Science Festival, said: “I’m 65, I don’t want to be targeted. I am very uncomfortable with it. It seems to me that our privacy is gradually being violated and eroded without us noticing.

“I am part of the generation which all read 1984 – I think we are less happy about giving up our privacy.

“But the younger generation aren’t really thinking about it. The services that Google and Facebook give us are so good that people are willing to trade off their privacy for them. If you grow up with that, that is what you know to like.”

Technology commentators have become increasingly concerned that Google has recently purchased a collection of artificial intelligence and robotics companies.

They fear it will give the technology giant unlimited access to private information.

Google recently paid £1.9billion for Nest Labs, a firm which makes internet–connected heating systems, allowing people to control their thermostats from afar.

Although supporters ague that having greater control over home applications can only be beneficial, others are worried that it enables firms to collect data about energy use and living habits.

Google also spent £300 million on Deep-Mind, a British artificial intelligence firm which specialises in quickly building up a profile of an individual based on their internet activity.

He said: ‘Google has a policy where they keep our entire history. They know far too much about us.

“At the moment it doesn’t seem harmful. But because governments can get hold of this information, they can monitor you, things might change quite dramatically.

“You give away that much information – you can now take little bits of data, put in a simple little algorithm, and it can put it all together and build up a big picture about us.”

He warned that soon Google would know ‘where you are all of the time.’

“The problem with any technology is that once it goes into the wild, once it starts picking up momentum and getting critical mass, we have no idea how it will be used, no idea. It is quite worrying,” he added.


From; 6/8/2014:

The morning’s keynote address was delivered by Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fund. She quoted both Karl Marx’s prediction that capitalism “carried the seeds of its own destruction,” and Pope Francis’ characterization of increasing inequality as “the root of social evil.” She came out against a favorite centrist reaction to rising inequality—“that ultimately we should care about equality of opportunity, not equality of outcome.” The problem, Madame Lagarde said, was that opportunity could never be equal in a deeply unequal society. She called for more progressive income tax systems and greater use of property tax.


"little place for dogmatisms and certainties"

"a new pattern of social life"

From "Economic, Social, and Political Forces,"
by J. Steele Gow, Jr., Burkart Holzner, and William C. Pendelton, in THE CHANGING AMERICAN SCHOOL: The Sixty-fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II, edited by John I. Goodlad:

This awareness of the many layers of the human problem has led to a new recognition of the interdependence of the sciences of man, ranging from the medical fields through psychology to the social sciences, and of the limitations of each approach as well as of its contributions. The awareness has been heightened by the fact that in the last few decades the sciences of man have acquired a high relevance in all practical matters of private decisions and public policy. It has become a matter of common routine, and of great public interest, to take the pulse of social life not merely through the keeping of vital statistics but through the detailed and often sophisticated analysis and monitoring of social-psychological processes, such as changes in attitudes or motivations . Even the prediction of the behavior of large populations has become possible with an amazing degree of accuracy. Thus, aspects of social life have become matters of public, empirical knowledge, which in previous periods were entirely hidden from view, or at best were objects of cloudy, moralistic speculation. This development illustrates best the dilemmas of our reflective, self-analyzing culture, in which man knows himself as the decision-making agent, who thinks of himself as free, and recognizes as well that he is an object of scientific study and prediction. The moral issues of such a situation cannot be solved by reference to the morality of the past. These problems are new and their solution is a task which only modern man has faced.


On the whole, however, the impact has been less to create "a nation of sheep" than to make room for a realistic appraisal of social life and its forces and has provided the climate in which concerted efforts at social planning and social reform have been carried out and are being driven forward. Contrary to the pessimistic appraisals given by some observers of the American scene, it is now a well-documented fact that, through the rise of the social sciences, the American intellectual in particular has come into his own . He, in turn, has used social science as a fighting weapon, often endangering its claim to scientific objectivity, in building his new view of man and society, in the defense of his values of equalitarianism and liberty, against dogmatism and prejudice, and in the shaping of public policy.


We have put forth, in this overview, our conviction that there is emerging a new cultural configuration, a new view of man and of society, and a new range of "languages" or symbolic systems for analysis and expression. This new culture has little place for dogmatisms and certainties. It is built on the conviction of the centrality of man acting in uncertainty, and it is creating methodologies rather than metaphysics. It is intriguing, indeed, that this great transformation can be seen so clearly in virtually all areas of cultural endeavor that we may speak of the emergence of a new culture.


The confusion of ideologies has resulted in a great many debates in which semantics becloud the picture and prevent a realistic grasp of social change. The central difficulty is just this: What we are dealing with is a process of fundamental, structural transformation which, while it preserves important historical continuities, has introduced a new pattern of social life which cannot be grasped with the concepts of the past.


In the United States, the transition involves the following aspects: continued urbanization, with the growth of mammoth metropolitan agglomerations and changes in the nature of city life; the growth of complex, and interlocking organizations in the public and private domains, accompanied by increasingly organized regulation of social life; greater homogeneity of the population through a redistribution of wealth, the relative decline of ethnic stratification, and a decline in the polarization of the social classes; increasing similarity between the great regions of America and an enormous increase in the interdependence of the whole nation in the political, economic, and cultural fields. All of this has resulted in the development of new patterns of social stratification which determine the life chances of individuals and require different kinds of skills for successful participation in the society, thus affecting directly every person.


The fact is that massive political forces of the last two decades have called upon the schools to serve as principal agents of change for the implementation of national public policies. The long-running debate as to whether the schools should reflect or should reshape their society has become largely academic. The schools have been driven by political forces into the position of spearheading societal change as that change is embodied in politically formulated public policy.


Moshe Smilansky, Chairman of the Department of Education at the University of Tel Aviv, in lecture sponsored by the Graduate School of Education, University of Chicago, July 28, 1965:

In the light of (1) the need of a democratic society for a functioning equality among the people, (2) the need of a technologically developing economy for a speedy expansion of "the pool of ability," and (3) the evidence from research and experience in different countries that not only cultures and societies are in process of evolution and change, but that man's potentialities can be promoted, the task of the educational system and the psychological service should be altered. Instead of serving as "gate-keepers," these agencies should: try to identify, diagnostically, those social and cultural determinants that set constraints on the appearance and activation of human potentialities; and conduct a systematic search, experimentally, for ways to deal with, and promote, their emergence and growth.


From; 6/12/2014:

Federal tax revenues continue to run at a record pace (in inflation-adjusted dollars) in fiscal 2014, as the federal government’s total receipts for the fiscal year closed May at an unprecedented $1,934,919,000,000, according to the Monthly Treasury Statement.

Despite record revenue, the federal government still ran a deficit of $436.382 billion in the first eight months of the fiscal year, which began on Oct. 1, 2013 and will end on Sept. 30, 2014.

In the month of May alone, the federal government ran a deficit of $129.971 billion--bringing in $199.889 billion in revenue while spending $329.860 billion.

The White House Office of Management and Budget has estimated that in the full fiscal 2014, the federal government will collect $3.001721 trillion in taxes, spend $3.650526 trillion, running a deficit of $648.805 billion.

From; May 5, 2014:

Officials at Broward County Public Schools banned a fifth grader from reading the Bible during “free reading” time, according to lawyers from the Liberty Institute who are threatening to sue the school for violating the First Amendment.

Giovanni Rubeo is a fifth-grade student at the school, who had been given a Bible at church as a Christmas gift. It’s his favorite book, so he decided he’d like to read it during the time in class where students are allowed to read anything they choose.

Swornia Thomas is Giovanni’s teacher. On April 8, Thomas told Giovanni he’s not allowed to read the Bible in her class and ordered him to put it away. Giovanni asked her to call his father, Paul Rubeo, about the incident.

Thomas did so, leaving a voicemail that included, “I noticed that he [Giovanni] has a book—a religious book—in the classroom. He’s not permitted to read those books in my classroom.” Rubeo then contacted the school’s principal, Orinthia Dias, who brought in the school’s legal department. None of them are willing to acknowledge that Giovanni has a constitutional right to read the Bible.


From; May 5, 2014:

Americans United for Separation of Church and State today strongly condemned a U.S. Supreme Court ruling upholding the town of Greece, N.Y.’s policy of opening government meetings with Christian prayers.

In a 5-4 decision today, the high court said that Marsh v. Chambers, a 1983 ruling that permits state legislatures to pay for official chaplains and open sessions with prayers, authorizes the town’s practice.

“The Supreme Court just relegated millions of Americans - both believers and nonbelievers - to second-class citizenship,” said the Rev. Barry W. Lynn, executive director of Americans United, which sponsored the lawsuit. “Government should not be in the business of forcing faith on anyone, and now all who attend meetings of their local boards could be subjected to the religion of the majority.”

Writing for the majority, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy rejected the argument that government-sponsored prayers must be non-sectarian.

“Respondents argue, in effect, that legislative prayer may be addressed only to a generic God,” Kennedy wrote. “The law and the Court could not draw this line for each specific prayer or seek to require ministers to set aside their nuanced and deeply personal beliefs for vague and artificial ones.”

Kennedy also said the town’s prayer practices were not coercive because people are free to not participate.

But Kennedy did imply that some limits may be imposed on prayer before government meetings.

“If the course and practice over time shows that the invocations denigrate nonbelievers or religious minorities, threaten damnation, or preach conversion, many present may consider the prayer to fall short of the desire to elevate the purpose of the occasion and to unite lawmakers in their common effort,” Kennedy wrote. “That circumstance would present a different case than the one presently before the Court.”

In a dissenting opinion, Justice Elena Kagan said the decision will foster majority rule on public prayer.

“I respectfully dissent from the Court’s opinion because I think the Town of Greece’s prayer practices violate that norm of religious equality – the breathtakingly generous constitutional idea that our public institutions belong no less to the Buddhist or Hindu than to the Methodist or Episcopalian,” she wrote.

Americans United brought the litigation on behalf of two Greece residents, Susan Galloway, who is Jewish, and Linda Stephens, an atheist. They objected to the town board’s practice of inviting clergy to open meetings with prayers that left them feeling unwelcome and alienated.

The board has not required that the invocations be inclusive and non-sectarian. Consequently, the prayers have almost always been Christian. Official records showed that between 1999 and June 2010, about two-thirds of the 120 recorded invocations contained references to “Jesus Christ,” “Jesus,” “Your Son” or the “Holy Spirit.” And almost all of the prayer-givers have been Christian clergy.

As a result, in a unanimous May 2012 decision, a three-judge panel of the U.S. 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against the town’s prayer policy. Judge Guido Calabresi said “a given legislative prayer practice, viewed in its entirety, may not advance a single religious sect.”

Lynn said today’s decision is unfortunate.

“This ruling is out of step with the realities of modern-day America,” Lynn said. “In a country where pluralism and diversity are expanding every day, a Supreme Court decision that gives the green light to ‘majority-rules’ prayer at local government is exactly what we don’t need.”


May 5, 2014:

A professor at a public university in North Carolina forbade his students from thanking God in personal statements that will be delivered during their departmental graduation ceremony on Friday.

In an email obtained by Campus Reform, Assistant Professor Eli Hvastkovs, who teaches chemistry at East Carolina University (ECU), instructed his students to prepare a “family friendly” 35­word personal statement that mentions future plans or “thanks someone.” The students, however, were explicitly forbidden from thanking God.

"You can't thank God. I'm sorry about this – and I don't want to have to outline the reasons why.” - Professor Eli Hvastkovs

“I've had some submissions that needed to be edited. so [sic] here are some guidelines,” the email reads. “1. You can't thank God. I'm sorry about this – and I don't want to have to outline the reasons why.”

In an interview with Campus Reform late last week, Professor Hvastkovs defended the restrictions and confirmed he sent the email banning giving thanks to God after too many students recognized religious figures during last year’s event.

“It's not a religious ceremony,” Hvastkovs told Campus Reform, “it's purely educational.”

Hvastkovs also acknowledged the ban was not a school policy.

“It's more of a departmental thing, we have a diverse student body,” he said.


From; May 5, 2014:

The committee wasted no time in using the Convention on the Rights of the Child to pressure the Catholic Church to change its teaching about the family and control what is taught in private classrooms. It urged the Vatican to “refrain from using terminology that could challenge equality between girls and boys” and to “take active measures to ensure that textbooks used in Catholic schools do not contain gender stereotyping that might limit the development of the talents and abilities of boys and girls and undermine their educational and life opportunities.”

Asserting Control

This is nothing less than the UN trying to control what textbooks are used in private parochial schools. If this or other UN treaties were ratified in the U.S., this is evidence that UN committees would try to oversee the textbooks used by homeschool families and how parents teach their children.


From; 5/21/2014:

In 1907, Monsignor Robert Hugh Benson, reading the signs most people didn’t noticed, published his dystopian End Times novel, Lord of the World. Set in the early twenty-first century, Benson foresaw a time when busy workers “had learned at least the primary lessons of the gospel that there was no God but man, no priest but the politician, no prophet but the schoolmaster.” He envisioned a world in which Christianity had all but vanished with little hope of resurgence, a world where the marginalization of Christians morphed into persecution and finally genocide.

In the novel, an elderly statesman explains the situation to an young priest: “First, you see, there was Materialism, pure and simple that failed more or less—it was too crude—until psychology came to the rescue. Now psychology claims all the rest of the ground; and the supernatural sense seems accounted for. That’s the claim. No, father, we are losing; and we shall go on losing, and I think we must ever be ready for a catastrophe at any moment.”


“They threaten us with consequences if we refuse to call what is good, evil, and what is evil, good,” said [Dr. Robert] George, “They demand [we] conform our thinking to their orthodoxy, or else say nothing at all.” Break their rules and, like the beleaguered Christians in Benson’s novel, we could pay a steep price in our careers, our social standing, our friendships, our fortunes, and our futures."


From; 5/29/2014:

Churches around Europe were subjected to theft, arson and explosions last year, according to a new report.

Over 100 incidences of vandalism across eleven European countries are catalogued by a think-tank – the Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians.

The report details cases of petrol bombs being thrown at a church in Italy, and Lutheran buildings that were burnt down in Germany.


From; 6/2/214:

Police have investigated a Baptist church over a poster which suggested non-believers would burn in Hell.

A 20-year-old passer-by complained the sign did not tally with the message "love thy neighbour."

The poster read: "If you think there is no God, you better be right" with a picture of burning flames below the words.

Pastor John Rose of Attleborough Baptist Church in Norfolk, said the poster was an attempt to get people to engage with the Christian message and he regretted that it had been interpreted as inciting hatred.

A police spokesman said national guidance required them to investigate the complaint that the poster was offensive and the matter had been recorded as a "hate incident." After talking to the police the poster was taken down.

A Daily Mirror survey showed its readers were 2-1 in favor of the church displaying the poster.



Rutherford Institute Asks U.S. Supreme Court to Prohibit Navy’s Practice of Discriminating Against Evangelical Navy Chaplains As Unconstitutional

June 04, 2014

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Coming at the end of a decade-long fight to achieve equality in the treatment of Navy Chaplains, attorneys for The Rutherford Institute have asked the U.S. Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional the U.S. Navy’s practice of discriminating against evangelical chaplains within its Chaplain corps. In coming to the defense of numerous current and former U.S. Navy chaplains who allege that the Navy has procedures allowing discrimination against evangelical chaplains in regard to promotions and assignments, Institute attorneys point to ample statistical evidence that Navy boards are biased against chaplains of certain “disfavored” denominations. As such, Institute attorneys are asking that the U.S. Supreme Court rule that the Navy is in violation of the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause and the Fifth Amendment’s guarantee to equal protection of the law.


From; 6/3/2014:

A hip-hop church opened Saturday night in Huntersville, N.C.

Pastor Quinn Rodgers of Generation One says his church is targeting a younger audience.
“We’re trying to reach the un-churched, the de-churched, the folks who have given up on church and are looking for something different, “Rodgers told WBTV.

Traditional religions hymns will not be sung, instead the congregation will hear a DJ scratching hip-hop beats.

“We’ve taken the hip-hop culture and we’ve extracted all the negative connotations out of it and we’ve deposited solid Christian doctrine in there,” Rodgers told WBTV.


From,187389: 6/10/14:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) removed religious prayer from its commencement ceremony this year.

Traditionally, MIT Chaplain Robert Randolph has given a religious prayer at the ceremony, as he prayed to the “God of Abraham, Jesus and Mohammed” during last year’s graduation. However, MIT’s Commencement Committee emailed undergraduates announcing the change in May.

"If the administration wants to accommodate everyone, it should minimize exclusion."

This sudden reversal comes from the widespread discussion of an op-ed written by student Aaron Scheinburg in the university’s paper. Scheinburg claimed that, “[i]t would be so easy — embarrassingly easy — to extend [the prayer's] message to 100 percent of students by simply not invoking religion.”

“If the administration wants to accommodate everyone, it should minimize exclusion, not average presumed personal preferences. Simply not mentioning God would exclude no one. Choosing neutrality would just be like all the other days when MIT doesn’t endorse a religion,” Scheinburg wrote.


The chaplain then began his secular prayer by stating that “[t]oday is the beginning of a new chapter in our collective lives, we have come from many places and we are grateful for the shared energy we have found here.”

Rather than end the invocation with a traditional ‘amen’, Randolph finished with a Maya Angelou quote.


From,187389; 6/13/2014:

Campus Christian club found guilty of discrimination for requiring its leaders to be Christians

•The California State University system is requiring campus club leaders to sign a nondiscriminatory agreement.

•The agreement would mean campus groups would not be able to discriminate based on "race, religion, etc."

•Intervarsity Christian Fellowship may lose its club status at Chico State University as it requires its leaders to be Christians.


From; 7/5/2014:

Despite always believing in the existence of good, evil and God, ex-New York Police Department sergeant Ralph Sarchie didn’t consider himself a particularly religious guy — that is, until he began battling what he says are dangerous, supernatural forces.

Sarchie, a self-described demonologist who was once a cop for the 46th police precinct in New York City — and the inspiration for the new Hollywood film “Deliver Us From Evil” — told TheBlaze that he believes possessions and infestations are on the rise.

“It’s definitely on the rise. I hate to say it,” Sarchie said in an interview. “As society pushes God out, no one can deny that that’s happening. There’s a good portion of society that just cannot stomach Jesus Christ and when I see that, I have to wonder where that hatred comes from.”

From; 6/1/2014:

A single-letter change in the genetic code is enough to generate blond hair in humans, in dramatic contrast to our dark-haired ancestors. A new analysis by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) scientists has pinpointed that change, which is common in the genomes of Northern Europeans, and shown how it fine-tunes the regulation of an essential gene.

"This particular genetic variation in humans is associated with blond hair, but it isn't associated with eye color or other pigmentation traits," says David Kingsley, an HHMI investigator at Stanford University who led the study. "The specificity of the switch shows exactly how independent color changes can be encoded to produce specific traits in humans." Kingsley and his colleagues published their findings in the June 1, 2014, issue of the journal Nature Genetics.



"The man who tells us that blood has little effect must have read history to very little purpose; or have looked very carelessly into the glass that Nature hourly holds up to his view."

-T. C. DeLeon, FOUR YEARS IN REBEL CAPITALS: An Inside View of Life in the Southern Confederacy, from Birth to Death; from Original Notes, Collated in the Years 1861 to 1865, 1890


"We do not learn morality by reading ethics textbooks or listening to sermons. Our moral life begins with the love we have for our mother and the respect we have for our father, and it begins to radiate genetically outward to brothers and sisters and cousins, while at the same time escaping the household and kinship by reaching out to neighbors and eventually to comrades, teammates, and coworkers. English is oftern a fuzzy and impreicse language, but in the case of kinfolk, neighbors, comrades, and friends, our set of verbal distinctions makes it more difficult to see than underlying all these words is a common notion: that of moral obligation."

-Thomas Fleming, "Virtual Neighborhoods," Chronicles, June 2014

_____; 7/2/2014:

Federal Gov’t Sues Wisconsin Company, Says English-Language Requirement is 'Discrimination'

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), a federal agency tasked with enforcing workplace discrimination laws, is suing a private American business for firing a group of Hispanic and Asian employees over their inability to speak English at work, claiming that the English-language requirement in a U.S. business constitutes “discrimination.”

Judicial Watch reported Tuesday that the government is accusing Wisconsin Plastics, Inc. of violating Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination based on “national origin.” The government argues this includes the “linguistic characteristics of a national origin group.”


According to a news release from the EEOC, Chicago Regional Attorney John C. Hendrickson said the Green Bay-based company’s English requirement is based on “superficial” reasoning.

"Our experience at the EEOC has been that so-called 'English only' rules and requirements of English fluency are often employed to make what is really discrimination appear acceptable. But superficial appearances are not fooling anyone,” Hendrickson said in the release. “When speaking English fluently is not, in fact, required for the safe and effective performance of a job, nor for the successful operation of the employer’s business, requiring employees to be fluent in English usually constitutes employment discrimination on the basis of national origin — and thus violates federal law.”


From; circa 2002:

Opening Remarks

The Ford Foundation's Commitment to a Global Vision
Susan Berresford

Susan Berresford, the president of the Ford Foundation, made the following remarks on the opening day of the Tri-National Seminar on Diversity and Higher Education. She welcomed the three countries' delegates to the final seminar of the three-year Ford Foundation-sponsored project and shared with them her vision of how the experiment in transnational conversations was a portent of new intellectual and political alignments.


Secondly, I believe that affirmative intentions and actions are needed on many fronts in this society. For example, I think we have a lot of work to do to build truthful histories of how we got where we are, how we developed the discriminatory patterns that plague our society, because, unless we understand how we constructed these patterns, we will not understand how long it will take and how much effort it will take to deconstruct them and build something better in their place. I think we also need truthful stories about our success in overcoming the barriers that our discriminatory patterns have created, because such stories can show people that the success results from struggle. It is not the result of some quiet evolution in which the mere passage of time moves us ahead. The struggle involves power, and no one gives up power very easily. We have to demonstrate that to the larger society.


From; 7/6/2014:

HOUSTON, Texas--As illegal immigrants continue to spill across the U.S.-Mexico border, federal authorities are attempting to relocate the migrants from South Texas to housing facilities in states across the nation. One such facility is located in Murrieta, California, where a large group of protesters recently blocked a bus full of migrants from arriving. The protesters remain there, adamant that illegal immigrants don't get dumped in their town. But soon the concerned citizens may be forced to step down--Breitbart Texas has learned that federal agents plan to arrive in Murrieta on Monday with riot gear to ensure that another busload makes it to the housing facility.

Jeremy Oliver, a resident of Temecula, California--a town that neighbors Murrieta--told Breitbart Texas that local police officers warned the protesters that "it's going to get ugly."

Oliver said, "The feds are pissed that they haven't been able to use this facility. Officers out there warned people that federal agents will be in Murrieta on Monday--they are going to get the next bus through no matter what. Riot gear and shields will be used to push the crowd back."

John Henry, a Murrieta resident since 1991, was told the same thing by local officers.

"We're being told that federal Marshals or ICE will be here in the next few days and that they are bringing riot gear," Henry said. "They're apparently going to be blocking off the street with concrete blockades so that no vehicles can get through. The River County Sheriff's Department showed up last night and brought a huge watch tower that shoots up into the air 35 feet."

On Friday, six protesters were arrested in Murrieta. One was apprehended for crossing "the yellow tape that blocked protesters from the Border Patrol station entrance," according to USA Today.

Henry expressed frustration at the fact that the illegal immigrants are being "rewarded" for breaking the law--after illegally crossing the border, they receive a slew of taxpayer subsidized benefits like housing, food, education, vocational training, and legal counsel. Most are then released onto U.S. soil.

When U.S. citizens break the law, on the other hand, they pay the price. "If any one of us were to roll through a stop sign, we'd be pulled over and ticketed," Henry noted.

_____; viewed 7/6/2014:

Hispanic Missions

Our Hispanic missions are an important part of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Atlanta. We have grown quickly and now have nine different worshiping communities.

Catedral San Felipe - Atlanta

Christ Church - Norcross

Atonement - Sandy Springs

El Buen Pastor - Austell

San Beda - Atlanta

Santa Maria - East Point

San Benedicto - Smyrna

San David - Roswell

San Eduardo - Lawrenceville

"According to Donald Davidson, it is a lesson that all of us require and that we can receive if we will- once the power of memory has been restored."

-M.E. Bradford, "Donald Davidson and the Calculus of Memory," Chronicles, May, 1994



A flash from the edge of a hostile trench,
A puff of smoke, a roar-
Whose echo shall roll from the Kenesaw hills
To the farthermost Christian shore,
Proclaims to the world that the warrior priest
Will battle for right no more.

And for a Cause which is sanctified
By the blood of martyrs unknown-
A Cause for which they gave their lives
And for which he gave his own,
He kneels a meek ambassador
At the foot of the Father's Throne.

And up in the courts of another world
That angels alone have trod,
He lives, away from the din and strife
Of this blood-besprinkled sod-
Crowned with the amaranthine wreath
That is worn by the blest of God.

-Henry Lynden Flash, POEMS, 1906


"We killed Bishop Polk yesterday

Series I, Volume XXXVIII, page 480, 1891:


Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Museum

June 14, 1865

General Polk Killed at Pine Mountain

Unable to gain any advantage in the fierce fighting around New Hope Church, Sherman sidesteps toward the railroad to replenish his supplies. Johnston shadows his every move, but heavy rains soon leave both armies axle-deep in mud. While riding along his lines, Sherman notices a group of Confederate officers on the crest of Pine Mountain and orders a nearby battery to open fire. The second shot strikes Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk in the chest, killing him instantly.


Pine Mountain Golgotha, from crest of Kennesaw Mountain, June 14, 2010, Trinity Term, in the fourth month prior to the Sesqui-Ce
ntennial of Bishop Leonidas Polk's consecrating the Cornerstone of his University of the South in Louisiana Circle, Sewanee, Tennessee.

Marker on North-Facing Crest of Kennesaw Mountain


Rudyard Kipling's "The Gods of the Copybook Headings," October, 1919:

AS I PASS through my incarnations in every age and race,
I make my proper prostrations to the Gods of the Market Place.
Peering through reverent fingers I watch them flourish and fall,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings, I notice, outlast them all.

We were living in trees when they met us. They showed us each in turn
That Water would certainly wet us, as Fire would certainly burn:
But we found them lacking in Uplift, Vision and Breadth of Mind,
So we left them to teach the Gorillas while we followed the March of Mankind.

We moved as the Spirit listed. They never altered their pace,
Being neither cloud nor wind-borne like the Gods of the Market Place,
But they always caught up with our progress, and presently word would come
That a tribe had been wiped off its icefield, or the lights had gone out in Rome.

With the Hopes that our World is built on they were utterly out of touch,
They denied that the Moon was Stilton; they denied she was even Dutch;
They denied that Wishes were Horses; they denied that a Pig had Wings;
So we worshipped the Gods of the Market Who promised these beautiful things.

When the Cambrian measures were forming, They promised perpetual peace.
They swore, if we gave them our weapons, that the wars of the tribes would cease.
But when we disarmed They sold us and delivered us bound to our foe,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "Stick to the Devil you know."

On the first Feminian Sandstones we were promised the Fuller Life
(Which started by loving our neighbour and ended by loving his wife)
Till our women had no more children and the men lost reason and faith,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "The Wages of Sin is Death."

In the Carboniferous Epoch we were promised abundance for all,
By robbing selected Peter to pay for collective Paul;
But, though we had plenty of money, there was nothing our money could buy,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings said: "If you don't work you die."

Then the Gods of the Market tumbled, and their smooth-tongued wizards withdrew
And the hearts of the meanest were humbled and began to believe it was true
That All is not Gold that Glitters, and Two and Two make Four
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings limped up to explain it once more.

As it will be in the future, it was at the birth of Man
There are only four things certain since Social Progress began.
That the Dog returns to his Vomit and the Sow returns to her Mire,
And the burnt Fool's bandaged finger goes wabbling back to the Fire;

And that after this is accomplished, and the brave new world begins
When all men are paid for existing and no man must pay for his sins,
As surely as Water will wet us, as surely as Fire will burn,
The Gods of the Copybook Headings with terror and slaughter return!


From; viewed May 5, 2014:

Rudyard Kipling's reputation grew from phenomenal early critical success to international celebrity, then faded for a time as his conservative views were held by some to be old-fashioned. The balance is now being restored.


"We have lost so much! I would
rather anything than this!"
-General Joseph E. Johnston, C.S.A., The Army of Tennessee, in W.M. Polk's LEONIDAS POLK: Bishop and General, Vol. II, 1893


Headquarters, Army of Tennessee, In the Field, June 14, 1864, General Field Orders No. 2

Comrades!  You are called to mourn your first captain, your oldest companion in arms.  Lieutenant-General Polk fell today at the outpost of this army -the army he raised and commanded -in all of whose trials he shared -to all of whose victories he contributed.  In this distinguished leader we have lost the most courteous of Gentlemen, the most gallant of soldiers.  The Christian, Patriot, Soldier has neither lived nor died in vain.  His example is before you -his mantle rests with you.

-signed J.E. Johnston, General;
courtesy of  Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH


"I am too sad to come over this evening.  Ti's hard that one so noble, generous, and brave as our friend Genl' Polk should be taken from us."  

-Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood to General Johnston, June 14, 1864;
courtesy of Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH


The Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, June 15, 1864:

Death of Lieut Gen. Polk.

The telegraphic dispatch which announces the resumption of active hostilities in Northern Georgia brings also the melancholy tidings of the death of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk. He was struck by a cannon ball and instantly killed. Gen. Polk was a native of Ashe county, North Carolina, and was educated to the military profession, having graduated at West Point. Subsequently, however, he adopted the peaceful calling of the ministry, rose to distinction in the Protestant Episcopal Church, and became Bishop of the Diocese of Louisiana. At the breaking out of the war he relinquished his prelacy, under the solemn conviction that he could be of more service to his country in the field, and has since become distinguished for his ability as an officer and his valor in the presence of the foe. When the rank of Lieutenant General was created by Congress, the title was conferred upon him as one of those who had earned it by gallantry at the head of his command. He narrowly escaped death by the bursting of a gun at the battle of Belmont, but was only spared to lay down his life in the service of his country at a later period of the war. His memory will be cherished as one of the most devoted patriots whom a sense of duty has led to embark in this noble struggle for Southern independence.


The battle Commenced in North Georgia- Gen. Polk killed.

Atlanta, June 14.

The enemy opened slowly with artillery on our position yesterday afternoon, and, after the storm passed, continued up to nightfall. They opened again early this morning, and the artillery firing continued when the train left Marietta. Both armies are gradually moving towards our right. As the rains have closed, it is supposed that active operations will again commence. Trains from the front to-day bring very few wounded.

The following dispatch from Major West, of Gen. Polk's staff, was received by Col. Thrasher at noon to-day:

"Lieut. Gen. Polk was struck by a cannon shot to-day about eleven o'clock and instantly killed. Gens. Johnston, Hardee and Jackson were with him when he fell."


The Columbus Times, Wednesday Morning, June 15, 1864:

Special to the Columbus Times

Latest from the Georgia Front

Death of Lieut. Gen. Polk

Atlanta, June 14. -Lieut. Gen. Polk was killed by a shell to-day, above Marietta. He was standing in a group with Gens. Johnston, Hardee, Hood* and others, observing the enemy from a position occupied by the Washington Artillery. A fire was opened on the party from a Yankee battery, the second shot taking effect direclty in the chest of Gen. Polk. The body was fearfully mangled. He died instantly, and was carried to Marietta, where the remains await a coffin.

The firing to-day was only a demonstraion. There was no general engagement.

(*Hood absent)


From the Georgia Front

Death of General Polk Confirmed

Forrest's Vicotry a Great Success!!

Three Thousand Prisoners Captured!

Atlanta, June 14. -The enemy opened slowly with artillery on our position yesterday afternoon,
after the storm passed and continued up ot night-fall, and opened again this morning.

Artillery firing continued when the train left Marietta.

Both armies were gradually moving towards our right.

As the rains have ceased, it is supposed active operation will again commence.

Trains from the front to-day bring very few wounded.

The following dispatch from Maj. West of Gen. Polk's staff, was received by Col Thrasher
at noon to-day:

Lieut. Gen. Polk was struck by a cannon shot today about 11 o'lcock and instantly killed.
Gen. Johnston, Hardee and Jackson were with him when he fell.


"vows of vengeance"

The Columbus Times, Friday Morning, June 17, 1864:

The death of Gen. Polk is said to have cast a deep gloom over the army, and thousands of vows of veangeance have been registered.


"the painful intelligence"

"a great and good man"

The Columbus Times, Saturday Morning, June 18, 1864:

Death of Gen. Polk

Special Correspondence of the Memphis Appeal

On the Front, 12 N., June 14, 1864

The electric quiver along the wires, has doubtless, in this time, conveyed to your city the painful intelligence of the deat of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk, who was killed by a shell from the enemy about two hour since.

Being but a few hundred yards from the spot, I hastened to it, to gain the particulars, which are few and simple. Gens. Johnston, Hardee, Polk, Bate and Jackson, accompanied by a number of their respective staff officers, were riding around viewing our works; coming to the high point on Pine Mountain, occupied by Bate's division, they dismounted and approached the position occupied by Ferguson's battery, Slocomb's battery being just to the right.  These batteries had engaged the special attention of the enemy for a day or two, and, as I mentioned in my last, they frequently shelled this hill furiously.

When this party appeared, the enemy again opened fire. After remaining a few minutes they all started leisurely for their horses, except Gen. Polk. He was the last to leave. Just as he turned to walk away, the fatal shell, or a very large fragfragmet, struck him, breaking both arms, and terribly mutilating his breast; he fell dead without a struggle. His staff gathered around him and bore him away. Thus has fallen a great and good man, a peerless churchman, warrior, hero, and patriot, in the hour when his services are most needed, and the fate of his country undecided. Strange and mysterious to man are the ways of God. But he has gone to reap his reward in that realm where the wicked cease to trouble and the weary are at rest.

Gloom and sadness are depicted on the sad face of every one. All feel that our nation has sustained the loss of a pillar and champion. He was not  Christian virutes,  than admired for his heroism and chivalry.

The enemy are closing up to our lines steadily, and feeling the advanced position of Bate in the centre, and also of Hood's corps on the right.

The sun in shining out pleasantly, and the mud drying up fast. Stirring times may be anticipated.



Special to Chronicle and Sentinel (corrected excerpt):


The gallant Gen. Polk Killed. His remains at Marietta.

Atlanta, June 14.

Lt. Gen. Polk was killed by a shell today above Marietta. He was standing in a group with Gens. Johnston, Hardee, and others, observing the enemy from a position occupied by the Washington Artillery. A fire was opened on the party from a Yankee battery, the second shot taking effect directly in the chest of Gen. Polk. He died instantly, and was carried from the field to Marietta, where the remains await a coffin.

-The Confederate Union,
Milledgeville, Georgia, Tuesday June 21, 1864


The Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, June 21, 1864:

The fall of Lieut. Gen. Polk.

The Atlanta Confederacy has an interesting account of the fall of Lieut. Gen. (Bishop) Polk. It appears that Gen. Polk, with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee and Gen. Jackson, of the cavalry, accompanied by their respective staffs, had ridden out on the morning of the 14th inst to Pine Mountain to survey the positions. They reached that elevation, which is in the neighborhood of Gen. Bate's line, some five or six miles in front of Marietta, about 11 o'clock, A. M.

The Confederacy says:

‘The party were dismounted, and all their horses were left below the crown of the knoll. Some one had suggested that so large a group of officers at so exposed a point might attract the fire of the enemy. The suggestion had scarcely been offered before a shell from one of the enemy's batteries, recently planted, about nine hundred yards distant, passed very near them. The group then began to disperse in different directions. General Johnston and Lieut. Gen. Polk moved off a few paces together and separated — the former selecting a path lower down the hill, and Gen. Polk proceeding along the cone of the knoll. Gen. Johnston had scarcely parted from Gen. Polk before a second shell from the same battery struck the latter in the chest, and he fell without a groan.

’Col. Gale, of his staff, who observed his fall, ran immediately back to the spot, but before he had reached it the great soul of his loved General had sped beyond the clouds. There was a slight tremor of the lower jaw, but the eyes were fixed and the pulses ceased. A three inch rifle ball or shell had taken effect in the left arm, above the elbow, crushing it and passing through the body, and also through the right arm, just below the shoulder joint, leaving it in the same mutilated condition as the left, portions of the integuments serving to secure the arms still to the frame. The opening through the chest was indeed a frightful one, and in all probability, from the direction of the missile, involved the heart and lungs in its course. The position of the General, on the slope of Pine Mountain, at the moment of the sad occurrence, accounts for the upward tendency of the shot, as indicated in the course traced on his person.

The enemy's battery by this time began to fire with great rapidity, and the body was borne back on a litter, under a heavy fire. It was carried to the Relief Committee Ward of Dr. J. N. Simmons, in Marietta. Here, upon examination of the pockets of his coat, were found, in that of the left side, his Book of Common Prayer for the service of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and in the right pocket, four copies of the Rev. Dr. Quintard's little work entitled. "Balm for the Weary and the Wounded." Upon the fly leaves of each of these little volumes, indicating for whom they were intended, was inscribed the names respectively of Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee, and Lieut. Gen. Hood, "with the compliments of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk, June 12th, 1864." Within the fourth volume was inscribed his own name. All were saturated with the blood which flowed from the wound.

The remains, in charge of his staff, reached this city last night, and were received by a committee of citizens appointed by the Mayor, and deposited in St. Luke's Church, on Walton street.


The Daily Dispatch, Richmond Dispatch, July 1, 1864:

Letter from Sherman's army — the Usual Situation Lies — how Gen Polk's death was discovered

The New York Herald contains a long letter from Sherman's army, dated June 16th, in which all his repulses are ingeniously covered up under the name of "reconnaissances." The easy satisfied tone of the writer will hardly deceive the Yankees now, as they have doubtless heard of the bloody repulse of the 22d. We copy some portions of the account:

Operations of the 15th- M'Pherson.

The morning of the 15th dawned amid an irregular fire of artillery along the line, and met with a corresponding fire from the batteries of the enemy. As the day advanced the fire became more heavy, and musketry was used by the pickets of the two armies. Our lines at noon commenced moving into new and more advanced positions. McPherson, who had the left this morning, instead of the right, as upon the crossing of the Etowah, continued on the left, though making some changes in the position of his corps.

When the movement of the army began the 17th corps, (Blair's) from its place on the right of McPherson's line, moved forward obliqucing towards the left and the railroad. This corps soon became engaged with the enemy. As a support to the 17th, Harrow's division of the 15th was detached and placed upon the extreme left, while Osterhaus's, of the same corps, followed as a reserve. The other corps of McPherson's army swung around, falling in on the right of the 17th, and participating in the skirmishing which was going on continually. Before the movement commenced McPherson's command ranged from the right to the left- 17th, 16th, and 15th corps. Afterwards this order was reversed, placing the 15th on the right.

In this arrangement the troops advanced, the three corps engaging the enemy in front, White Harrow, with his division, wheeled to the right almost in a complete circle, and soon found himself in the rear of an outlying detachment of the enemy, consisting of two regiments, acting as a support to his picket line. Harrow immediately opened a light fire upon the troops he had cut off, and soon obliged them to surrender. They were the 31st and 40th Alabama infantry. The other corps of McPherson's army, while this was going on, upon the left, succeeded in forcing the enemy back, taking a small number of prisoners. Harrow, having advanced further than was intended, fell back with his prisoners and gave our line the intended direction. What position McPherson took after the success of his afternoon's work, I am not at liberty to state; let it be sufficient at present to say that he is some distance from the position he held on the 12th.

Hooker's operations on the same day — also the other corps.

Simultaneously with the movement of McPherson's troops the rest of the corps were advanced — Palmer directing himself towards the enemy's position on Kenesaw Mountain, Howard at Pine Mountain, the other corps filling up the gaps and participating in the general action. Hooker during the day made one of his magnificent assault is upon the enemy's works at the base of Lost Mountain. He soon carried their outer line of rifle pits, and charged with such impetuosity that he was not long in driving the enemy completely out of his first line of fortifications, forcing him up the mountain. In the position taken from the enemy Hooker remained, and after little labor placed it in a safe condition of defence. The enemy made some efforts to recover the lost ground, on very aptly, Lost Mountain, but was unable, being repulsed each time he undertook it.

Top, Graphical

The unchecked progress and invariably successful reconnaissances of Sherman's army have at last almost brought us one of the mountainous region of Georgia. Having practiced the popular flank movement upon Johnston at Dalton, avoided the bold and defensible range of the Chattanooga Mountains, having forced the enemy, with hardly a skirmish, out of the Altoona Mountains, there remains but one strong point left at which to make a good defence, and that is the position he now occupies. We had, indeed, supposed that the Altoona range was the last obstacle to a debouch upon the open country of the Chattahoochee valley; but we suddenly find ourselves opposed by another but smaller range of hills, though equally as formidable, the most prominent of which are Kenesaw, Pine and Lost Mountains. It is here the enemy has successfully stood for a week, defying the ability of our army to move him. The operations on the 15th, however, inaugurated the movement which will soon put us in possession of this important stronghold. Since our arrival at Big Shanty our army has by no means been idle. Every day there have been reconnaissances and observations, tending to the discovery of the enemy's weak points.

The map which accompanies this dispatch, and points out the prominent features of interest in this section, is a tracing of the military map made at Chattanooga, and is of great accuracy. Portions of it consist of a protraction of the surveys of the Cherokee gold mine region, which was originally laid out in sections and thus sold. With these facilities Capt W E Merrill, topographical engineer of the Arm the Cumberland, was enabled to compile an excellent and trustworthy map of the country through which our armies have been and are now operating. It will be seen from the map that Johnston's line now extends through Lost, Pine, and Kenesaw Mountains, extending in a southwestern direction, or rather almost directly from east to west. The mountains alluded to me peaks in the range, and add vastly to its defensive strength, and magnify the difficulties in the way of our army. Prior to the movement detailed in this dispatch the enemy held works at the of the range. The operations of the 13th and 16th in driving these to another fine of works running along the summit of the The capture of this line will insure the of the entire range, and will probably of the next action.

Sherman in sight of Marietta.

A surgeon who called on General Sherman last night informs me that the General remarked that he had "counted the houses of Marietta" that afternoon, from an elevation in the vicinity of Pine Mountain. This indicates how close we are to the just foothold of the rebels this side of the Chattahoochee. A few days will probably find him driven across the river, and the mountain one region cleared by our army. Marietta is a small but pretty place; about twenty miles from Atlanta.

Conversations with prisoners — the Yankee troops not sacrificed Carelessly

I had extensive conversation with the prisoners taken on the 15th, but elicit little news from them. Some say the rebel soldiers are in as good spirits as ever, and just as willing to fight [forever]; others do not put on such a bright coloring. The captured Colonel was formerly a lawyer in Chicago, and a short time before the war removed to Huntsville, Alabama, where he prosecuted his profession, and at the same time carried on a suit for the possession of the heart of a the this Southron; which he won, and united to himself city.

One very singular observation was made by several of the men in relation to the fighting of the two armies, which struck me as very true. They say that our men do not stand up and sacrifice their lines as freely as they do. Our men have common sense enough in know when they are unnecessarily exposed, and act accordingly. The rebel army is moved only by the intelligence of its leaders; our army acts through the intelligence of the whole mass. The prisoners say our officers do not sacrifice their men uselessly, but always consider the cost before they undertake a move They think their officers have little regard for the lives of the soldiers, and are willing to sacrifice any number to accomplish their purposes.

How Gen Polk's death was discovered.

A short time ago a signal officer by the name of Fluke, if I remember the name rightly, discovered the principle of the rebel system of signals, which enabled him to interpret what was transpiring along the enemy's lines. The discovery and key to the system was made known to some of our signal officers, and often through them and by this means valuable information has been secured concerning the designs of the enemy. On the afternoon of the 14th, after the death of Gen Polk, it seems the fact was announced along the enemy's lines by signals. One of the signal officers of our corps read and interpreted the signels, and at once made the unexpected announcement to our officers.

An officer tells me, when he drove the enemy back on the following day, that a pole with a piece of paper fastened at the end was found standing against a stump. One of them scurried the paper, upon which were these words: "You damned Yankees have killed old General Polk."

When the first news of his death reached us there was some doubt whether it was Lieutenant General Polk or a subordinate general of the same name. From the facts since secured, however, there seems to be no doubt about its being the variable Bishop General Leonidas.


"Without a groan his great manly form, so full of honor and love, tottered and fell, with his feet to the foe, and his face upturned to the sky above." 

-Mary Polk Branch, MEMOIRS OF A SOUTHERN WOMAN, 1912


"The most remarkable thing about him was, that not a drop of blood was ever seen to come out of the place through which the cannon ball [shell] had passed.  My pen and ability is inadequate to the task of doing his memory justice.  Every private soldier loved him... When I saw him there dead, I felt that I had lost a friend whom I had ever loved and respected, and that the South had lost one of her best and greatest generals."   

-Sam R. Watkins, Private, C.S.A., "CO. AYTCH," 1882


"In the left pocket of his coat was found his Book of Common-Prayer, and in the right four copies of a little manual entitled 'Balm for the Weary and Wounded' [penned by Rev. Dr. Charles Todd Quintard].  Upon the fly-leaf of three of these had been written the names respectively of 'General Joseph E. Johnston,' 'Lieutenant-General Hardee,' 'Lieutenant-General Hood,' 'with compliments of Leonidas Polk, June 12th, 1864.'  Upon that of the fourth was inscribed his own name.  All were saturated with his blood."  

-Funeral Services at the burial of Liet. Gen. Leonidas Polk, published 1866


Evidence reveals that the fatal blow was struck by a timed fuse 3" Hotchkiss shell fired from an Ordnance cannon (sometimes called "Rodman" gun, though incorrectly) sighted by Corporal Frank McCollum, of Captain Peter Simonson's 5th Indiana Battery, of Major-General David S. Stanely's Division, of Major-General Oliver O. Howard's IV Army Corps, of Major-General George H. Thomas' ("the Shame of Virginia") Army of the Cumberland, of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman's Military Division of the Mississippi. 

(Sources: THE CAMPAIGN FOR ATLANTA, William R. Scaife, 1993; ARTICLES OF WAR, Albert Castel, 2001)



(Source: Hotchkiss Projectiles and Projectile Cross Sections
at Jack Melton's authoritative Civil War Artillery; viewed 5/8/2014)


Pine Mtn. GA, June 14-15, 1864, Washington Artillery

Courtesy of Fred Bentley, Sr.

Unexploded Hotchkiss shell (timing fuse variety) dug from
a tree on Pine Mountain, presumably fired from Federal artillery.

Plaque as an honor to Washington Artillery, per shell fired at them, not by them.


Confederate batteries defending the Pine Mountain salient
included one unit of the New Orleans Washington Artillery:

From; viewed 5/9/2014:



Metaire Cemetery, New Orleans

Washington Artillery

Try Us.

Pine Mountain

Peach Tree Creek


Metaire Cemetery


Marietta Museum of History


One of the most popular shells used
during the war

A three piece artillery shell

Percussion (displayed) or timing fuse

Black powder bursting charge

In the first millisecond of cannon fire the back end of the projectile (1) is forced forward causing the lead band (2) around the center portion of the shell to expand so it will engage the rifling in the barrel causing it to spin which gives it greater accuracy. The bursting charge (3) was in the nose of the shell. All three pieces were shot from a cannon.



3" Ordnance Rifle

Unidentified, well-fed, well-provisioned, well-dressed, well-resourced
Yankee Artillerymen with fully equipped 3" Ordnance Rifle


Live replica firing of a murderous 3" Ordnance rifle

(Source:; viewed 6/4/2014)



"[T]he fatal missile of death deprived us of a hero."

-Col. J.N. Waytt of the 12th Tennessee, in Derek Smith's THE GALLANT DEAD: Union and Confederate Generals Killed in the Civil War, 2005


Courtesy of Archives of The University of the South

To Columbus, Miss. June 16th, 1864

By Telegraph from Marietta, 14th, 1864

Forwarded from Meridian, 16th

To Lt. Col. M. L. Polk, Aberdeen

Father was killed today instantly being struck
by three inch rile shot while reconnoitering enemy."

M. Polk


" 'Pine Mountain, a lone sentinel of nature, was made sacredly historic by the blood of the great preacher, General Bishop Polk,' a Rebel soldier wrote."

-In Smith's THE GALLANT DEAD, 2005


Federal occupation of Pine Mountain:

General Sherman's Campaign- the crest of Pine Mountain,
where General Polk fell June 14, 1864.

-Harper's Weekly, June 16, 1864


We give on page 453 three interesting sketches relating to General Sherman's advance in Georgia. These give a view of localities which, in connection with this campaign, have become historic. We have here, in the first place, a sketch of PINE MOUNTAIN, lately occupied by General Howard's corps, after its evacuation by the enemy- the result of one of Sherman's flank movements. It is a high knob, from which a splendid view of the country and a good idea of the position of the different armies may be obtained.

It was on the crest of this mountain that Lieutenant-General Polk was killed, June 14, by a shell form the Fifth Indiana Battery- the battery of the gallant Captain SIMONSON, who was himself killed the next day. The different corps of SHERMAN'S army have their signal stations on the top of Pine Mountain."

-Harper's Weekly, June 16, 1864


Frank Kirk Road, Kennesaw:

Captain Peter Simonson
5th Indiana Battery

Acting chief of artillery for the 1st Division (4th Army Corps),
Simonson on June 16, 1864 was busy entrenching here a 4-gun
battery of artillery when he was killed by a Confederate bullet. The
Confederate was perhaps a sharpshooter armed with an English made
rifle with scope known as a Whitworth. The Whitworth fired a sixsided
bullet that could kill a target one-half mile away. However, the
two armies were within a few hundred feet of each other at this point,
so it is not unreasonable to believe he could have been killed by a
common Confederate rifleman.


From Francis Trevelyan Miller's THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR, Vol. 3, 1911:

Pine Mountain, where Polk, the Fighting Bishop
of the Confederacy, was killed.


Lieut.-Gen Leonidas Polk, C.S.A.


So multifarious were the movements of the two great armies among the hills and forests of that part of Georgia that it is impossible for us to follow them all. On the 14th of June, Generals Johnston, Hardee, and Polk rode up the slope of Pine Mountain to reconnoiter. As they were standing, making observations, a Federal battery in the distance opened on them and General Polk was struck in the chest with a Parrot* shell. He was killed instantly.


General Polk was greatly beloved, and his death caused a shock to the whole Confederate army. He was a graduate of West Point; but after being graduated he took orders in the church and for twenty years before the war was Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana. At th outbreak of the war he entered the field and served with distinction to the moment of his death.

During the next two weeks there was almost incessant fighting, heavy skirmishing, sparring for position. It was a wonderful game of military strategy, played among the hills and mountains and forests by two masters in the art of war. On June 23d, Sherman wrote, "The whole country is one vast fort, and Johnston must have full fifty miles of connected trenches. . . . Our lines are now in close contact, and the fighting incessant. ... As fast as we gain one position, the enemy has another all ready."


From Francis Trevelyan Miller's THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR, Vol. 10, 1911:

Lieut.-General Leonidas Polk
Pine Mountain
June 14, 1864


Confederate Generals Killed in Battle

No 1

Army and Corps Commanders

A.S. Johnston, L. Polk, A.P. Hill


"I saw the smoke from and heard the thunder of Simonson's guns as they sent the fatal shot that tore his body and ended his earthly career. Sad and awful moment for the Confederacy."

-Lot Young in Smith's THE GALLANT DEAD, 2005


Grape shot, fragments gathered from the spot
where General Leonidas Polk fell at the
summit of the mountain. 1864
Kennesaw, Mt.
From Dr. Polk, June 1890

(Mini balls, not grapeshot; Pine Mountain, not Kennesaw;
courtesy of Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH.)


Contemporary Pine Mountain Topograph


"One special moment came after the Color Bearers had hiked to a little-visited site on Pine Mountain when Davis [Historian Stephen Davis, joined by Charlie Crawford of Georgia Battlefields Association] gave a vivid description of the death there of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk."

"Great Time at the Grand Review," in Civil War Preservation Trust's Hallowed Ground, , Winter 2004


"Georgia Governor Joe Brown on the eve of Secession: 'They may exterminate us... but conquer us they never will!' "

-DICTIONARY OF GEORGIA BIOGRAPHIES, Vol. 1, Athens, The University of Georgia Press, 1983


Excerpt from "Battles of Georgia,"
by Mrs. Lula Kendall Rogers,
Poet Laureate Georgia Division, U.D.C.,
Confederate Veteran, Vol. XXXI, No. 5, May 1923:

On Kenesaw's immortal crest
The flames rose higher and higher
Till Marietta seemed herself
A Kremlin pile on fire.
There kingly Bishop-General Polk,
With grand heroic love,
Exchanged the soldier's earthly crown
For a crown of stars above!


Collection of 3" Hotchkiss case shot and shells on display
at the Nash Farm Battlefield reenactment and dedication,
August 19, 2006; courtesy of Mike Almond, Newnan, Georgia.



Clockwise, from top left: 3-inch time fuse case shot; Frankfort Arsenal 30-second time fuse; Hotchkiss patent percussion fuse; 3-inch time fuse shell, sectioned; 3.8-inch time fuse shell or case shot; 10-second time fuse packet, Frankfort Arsenal, 1863; 3-inch time fuse case shot. Center: Hotchkiss & Sons illustrated trade card, c. 1864 (reprographic 4X enlargement)

Museum of Connecticut History

(Source:; viewed 5/9/2014)


"...mourning is expected to foster memory, which in a practical sense is quite plausible. Mourning results in 'historic empathy,' as we recall what we have lost."

-M.E. Bradford, "Donald Davidson and the Calculus of Memory, Chronicles, May, 1994


Henry Timrod's "Charleston":

Calm as that second summer which precedes
The first fall of the snow,
In the broad sunlight of heroic deeds,
The City bides the foe.

As yet, behind their ramparts stern and proud,
Her bolted thunders sleep—
Dark Sumter, like a battlemented cloud,
Looms o’er the solemn deep.

No Calpe frowns from lofty cliff or scar
To guard the holy strand;
But Moultrie holds in leash her dogs of war
Above the level sand.

And down the dunes a thousand guns lie couched,
Unseen, beside the flood—
Like tigers in some Orient jungle crouched
That wait and watch for blood.

Meanwhile, through streets still echoing with trade,
Walk grave and thoughtful men,
Whose hands may one day wield the patriot’s blade
As lightly as the pen.

And maidens, with such eyes as would grow dim
Over a bleeding hound,
Seem each one to have caught the strength of him
Whose sword she sadly bound.

Thus girt without and garrisoned at home,
Day patient following day,
Old Charleston looks from roof, and spire, and dome,
Across her tranquil bay.

Ships, through a hundred foes, from Saxon lands
And spicy Indian ports,
Bring Saxon steel and iron to her hands,
And summer to her courts.

But still, along you dim Atlantic line,
The only hostile smoke
Creeps like a harmless mist above the brine,
From some frail, floating oak.

Shall the spring dawn, and she still clad in smiles,
And with an unscathed brow,
Rest in the strong arms of her palm-crowned isles,
As fair and free as now?

We know not; in the temple of the Fates
God has inscribed her doom;
And, all untroubled in her faith, she waits
The triumph or the tomb.


From Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1857:

Bird's-Eye View of the Palmetto City

The Topography of Charleston


"by instituting peculiar customs and organizations"

Excerpts from the
Address by Rev. John L. Girardeau, D. D.,
delivered at the Ladies Memorial Association's
Confederate Memorial Day,
Reinterrment of South Carolina's Gettysburg Dead,
Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston

May 10, 1871

To sum up what has been said: Our brethren will not have died in vain if we their survivors adhere to the great principles for which they contended unto death; if we preserve an attitude of protest against those Radical influences which threaten to sweep away every vestige of constitutional rights and guarantees, to pollute the fountains of social life, and ultimately to whelm our civil and religious liberties in one common ruin.

Can this attitude be maintained? I presume not to speak of special political measures, but would earnestly urge the adoption of a course which will enable us to retain our hold upon our principles, and keep a posture of preparation for any relief which a gracious Providence may be pleased in answer to our prayers to grant us from the evils which now oppress us:

Let us cling to our identity as a people! The danger is upon us of losing it- of its being absorbed and swallowed up in that of a people which having despoiled us of the rights of freemen assumes to do our thinking, our legislating and our ruling for us. Influences are operating on us with every last breath we draw which, if we be not vigilant, will sooner or later wipe out every distinctive characteristic which has hitherto marked us. Are we prepared for it? In that event, nothing of the past will be left to the South but a history which will read like and elegiac poem, nothing for the present but a place on the maps which our children study, nothing for the future but a single element of existence- a geographical one. But can we preserve our identity in the face of the difficulties which oppose it?

We may do it, by continuing to wear the badges of mourning befitting a deeply afflicted people; by consenting to undergo the trials which distinguish us from a people inflated with material prosperity rather than abate one jot or tittle of our adhesion to principle; and by transforming the sufferings endured for freedom's sake into a discipline which may save our virtues from decay, and our liberties from extinction. We may do it, by utterly refusing to participate in any measures, of however great apparent utility, which require the slightest compromise of our innermost convictions; by declining to acquiesce where only to submit is demanded of us; and by preserving a dignified silence by which we shall signify our resolution, if we may not act for truth, right and liberty, not to act at all. We may do it, by instituting peculiar customs and organizations which will discharge the office of monuments perpetuating the past; by forming associations of a memorial character like that whose call gathers us here today; by collecting and publishing materials for our own history; and by appointing anniversaries by which if we may not celebrate the attainment of independence we can at least commemorate the deeds of men who died for our fundamental liberties and constitutional rights. We may do it, by scrupulously adhering to the phraseology of the past- by making it the vehicle for transmitting to our posterity ideas which once true are true forever, all opposition to them by brute force to the contrary notwithstanding. We may do it, by the education we impart to the young; by making our nurseries, schools and colleges channels for conveying from generation to generation our own type of thought, sentiment and opinion; by stamping on the minds of our children principles hallowed by the blood of patriots, and by leading them with uncovered heads to gaze upon the grandest monuments the South can rear to liberty- the headstones which mark the last resting-place of Southern Volunteers!


But enough! the mournful office which has summoned us hither waits to be performed. Let us hasten to remove these relics of unconquered patriots from a strange atmosphere less free than the air of the sepulchre. And if we have abandoned the last hope of maintaining their principles, if we are prepared to give up everything for which they died, let us discharge this office for them with the feelings of those who are interring their principles with their bones- of those who are solemnizing the funeral-rites, and burying the corpse, of Liberty. Let us place no emblem of hope above their heads, but having in the silence of death struck the last stroke of the spade upon their graves, retire from the scene as men withdraw from a field on which all has been lost.

But if it be our determination that we will cease to cherish the sacred principles which these men consecrated with their blood only when we cease to live, then let us, comrades, fellow-citizens, lovers of liberty, with reverent mien and tender hands consign all that remains of our brethren to their coveted resting-place in the bosom of their beloved Carolina. And as we cover them for their last sleep let us bury with the every proposal to us to apostatize from their principles, every tendency even to compromise them, every desire to recover position, wealth or ease at the sacrifice of honour, virtue and truth. Let us lay them down in hope; and as each modest stone rears its head above them, inscribe upon it a Resurgam- the token of our faith that their principles now trodden into dust will rise again, the symbol of our invincible resolution that these men shall not altogether have died in vain.

Heroes of Gettysburg! Champions of constitutional rights! Martyrs for regulated liberty! Once again, farewell! Descend to your final sleep with a people's benedictions upon your names! Rest ye here, Soldiers of a defeated- God grant it may not be a wholly lost Cause! We may not fire a soldier's salute over your dust, but the pulses of our hearts beat like muffled drums, and every deep-drawn sigh breathes a low and passionate requiem. Memory will keep her guard of honour over your graves; Love will bedew them with her tears; Faith will draw from them her inspiration for future sacrifices; and Hope, kindling her torch at the fires which glow in your ashes, will, in its light, look forward to a day when a people once more redeemed and enfranchised will confess that your death was not in vain.


"The Reverend Resurgent of the South Regenerate"

Elmwood Cemetery, Columbia, South Carolina

John L. Girardeau

November 14th, 1825

June 23rd, 1898

After he had patiently endured,
he obtained the promise.
Hebrews 6:15


Confederate Monument, Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, S.C.


Bronze statue designed by James G. Holmes of the Cadet Rangers, and sculpted by Ferdinand Von Miller II of the Royal Foundry in Munich, Germany. Received by the Ladies Memorial Association in 1880.


Von Miller Family Gravesite, Winthirfriedhof, Munich


Charleston, S.C.
Confederate Monument and Soldiers Graves, Magnolia Cemetery


"virgin and invincible"

Rear Inscription:

This Bronze preserves the memory of the Heroic Dead from every part of Carolina and from her sister states of the South who fell in the defence of this city. In proud and grateful remembrance of their devotion, constancy and valor, who against overwhelming odds by sea and by land kept Charleston virgin and invincible to the last.


(Source:; viewed 5/9/2014)

(Source:; viewed 5/9/2014)


From; 5/29/2014:

The State Museum’s expanding Civil War in South Carolina exhibit is getting a face lift. New updates to the exhibit can be seen on Friday, May 30, which will focus on the coast of South Carolina, specifically Port Royal, Charleston and the Union blockade of Charleston Harbor.

Visitors will see small things that were used in everyday life during the war, including a pipe bowl owned by one of the Drayton brothers and a small secession flag, as well as larger artifacts such as ammunition from several types of cannons and mortars used to defend the coast.

The museum began enlarging its permanent exhibit on the war in 2011, the 150th anniversary of the war’s beginning, and will continue to add to the expansion through 2015, with the end of the sesquicentennial observation of the war.


Proclamation of General Beauregard to Non-Combatants

Headquarters Department, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida,
Charleston, S.C., February 18, 1863.

It has become my solemn duty to inform the authorities and citizens of Charleston and Savannah that the movements of the enemy's fleet indicate an early land and naval attack on one or both of these cities; and to urge that all persons not able to take an active part in the struggle shall retire. It is hoped, however, that this temporary separation of some of you from your homes will be made without alarm or undue haste- thus showing that the only feeling which animates you in the hour of supreme trial is the regret of being unable to participate in the defence of your homes, your altars, and the graves of your kindred.

Carolinians and Georgians! the hour is a hand to prove your devotion to your country's cause. Let all able bodied me, from the sea board to the mountains, rush to arms. Be not too exacting in the choice of weapons. Pikes and scythes will do for exterminating your enemies- spades and shovel for protecting your friends. To arms! fellow citizens. Come to share with us our dangers, our brilliant success, or our glorious death.

G.T. Beauregard
General Commanding


From; viewed 6/16/2014:

Sung on the occasion of decorating the graves of the Confederate dead, at Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, S. C., June 16, 1866

By Henry Timrod

Sleep sweetly in your humble graves,
Sleep, martyrs of a fallen cause!—
Though yet no marble column craves
The pilgrim here to pause.

In seeds of laurels in the earth,
The garlands of your fame are sown;
And, somewhere, waiting for its birth,
The shaft is in the stone.

Meanwhile, your sisters for the years
Which hold in trust your storied tombs,
Bring all they now can give you—tears,
And these memorial blooms.

Small tributes, but your shades will smile
As proudly on these wreaths to-day,
As when some cannon-moulded pile
Shall overlook this Bay.

Stoop, angels, hither from the skies!
There is no holier spot of ground,
Than where defeated valor lies
By mourning beauty crowned.


(Source:; undated)



The Leonidas Polk Memorial Monument
atop Pine Mountain

Kennesaw, Georgia

Erected In the 100th Year Preceding the 2002 Charleston Annunciation

SOUTH 1861 1865


Who fell on this spot

June 14, 1864

Folding his arms across his breast,
he stood gazing on the scene below,
turning himself around as if
to take a farewell view.
Thus standing a cannon shot
from the enemy's guns
crashed through his breast,
and opened a wide door
through which his spirit took
its flight to join his comrades
on the other shore.

Surely the earth never
opened her arms to allow
the head of a braver man
to rest upon her bosom.
Surely the light never pushed
back to make
brighter the road that leads
to the lamb.
And surely the gates of heaven
never opened wider to
allow a more manly spirit to
enter therein.

Erected by J. Gid and Mary J. Morris.




Veni Vidi Vici

With 5 to 1


General Polk Monument

Pine Mountain, Cobb, Co., Ga.

14th Annual Reunion
Georgia Division
United Confederate Veterans
August 28-28, 1912

(Courtesy of Everitt Bowles at



James Newton's "Amazing Grace,"
in OLNEY HYMNS, 1779

AMAZING grace! How sweet the sound
That saved a wretch like me.
I once was lost, but now am found,
Was blind, but now I see.

'Twas grace that taught my heart to fear,
And grace my fears relieved.
How precious did that grace appear
The hour I first believed.

Through many dangers, toils and snares
I have already come;
'Tis grace hath brought me safe thus far
And grace will lead me home.

The Lord has promised good to me
His word my hope secures;
He will my shield and portion be,
As long as life endures.

Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail,
And mortal life shall cease,
I shall possess within the veil,
A life of joy and peace.


Courtesy of Rose Taylor


John Henry Cardinal Newman's "The Pillar of Cloud,"
in HYMNS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Vol. XLV, Part 2, Harvard Classics, 1909-14:

At Sea, 16 June 1833

LEAD, Kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom,
Lead Thou me on!
The night is dark, and I am far from home-
Lead Thou me on!
Keep Thou my feet; I do not ask to see
The distant scene,- one step enough for me.

I was not ever thus, nor pray'd that Thou
Shouldst lead me on.
I loved to choose and see my path; but now
Lead Thou me on!
I loved the garish day, and, spite of fears,
Pride ruled my will; remember not past years.

So long Thy power hath blest me, sure it still
Will lead me on,
O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till
The night is gone;
And with the morn those angel faces smile
Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile.


"She made her pilgrimage to his grave for the first time. There, just as she had been carefully instructed, she fulfilled the Sewanee Cornerstone Prophecy upon his gravestone altar. Immediately afterwards, she met the right kind of church lady, who, having made the Cathedral Shrine the family spiritual home, and therefore could see deeply into the past, told Mary Ware the much needed revelation: 'The Yankees shot down our Bishop-General on the crest of Pine Mount while he was saying his prayers for us.' "

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


Confederate Veteran, Volume 10, No. 5, May 1902,
viewed 5/9/2014:


The tribute paid to the memory of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk by J. Gidd Morris and wife of .\Marietta. Ga., in the erection of a marble shaft twenty feet high on the top of Pine Mountain, Ga., on the spot where he was killed, is a notable event in Confederate history. Comrade Morris is a quiet citizen living on his farm near Marietta. He is loyal veteran and has for some years sought to influence the Georgia Division, U. C. V., to erect some tribute to Gen. Polk. When there was lack of response he determined he would do it himself. Inquiry of Comrade Morris as to the considerations brought the following points: The prime motive for the undertaking was that the Southern people owed this debt to the brave Christian gentle man and soldier. For years be had sought to influence action at his state reunions without encouragement. After many conferences with his patriotic wife he determined to erect it by her help. It was his idea to do it quietly, but when his enterprise was found out it determined to make the event a public occasion.

In a letter, comrade Morris stales in part:

When we commenced this two years ago we did not know Gen. P. had any living relations. Last winter I spoke to Rev. Mr. Pies, a minister of Marietta, and he wrote to a William Polk, of New York, in regard to this work, and I received a most beautiful letter from him. I did nol answer until April 1, and stated that we would put it up on the 5th. It rained and prevented. A few old veterans found it out and would have it made public. Since then we have received letters from two of his daughters, one from New Orleans, the other from Nashville, and the son in New York, expressing pressing in beautiful language their heart- felt thanks toward us S sufficient to fully repay us for all that we did. Nothing has been done for this in thirty-eight years. It is my native slate and home county. My father before and after I was born was a great admirer of James K. Polk, and I learned in time of the war that Leonidas Polk was a near relative. That and other reasons that I have neither language, nor time to give, induced the undertaking.


On the front page of this Veteran there are several views of Pine Mountain and the earth works made there in 1864. They were made on the day of dedicating the marble shaft erected by Mr. J. Gidd Morris to the memory of Lieut. Gen. (and Bishop) Leonidas Polk. There were present several hundred people, and the ceremony was quite interesting and appropriate. The freshness of the earth works was amazing. There did not seem to have been a human being about the spot except to erect this monument and to cut the way through trees for vehicles. The rains seem to have fallen lightly upon the earth works. The point is much more elevated than had been the impression of at least one who recalls the day and the sad hour that the news of Gen. Polk's death was passed along the lines. Comrade Morris has sad memories of the war. He says : "The Yankees in overwhelming numbers came down here and destroyed or took away the last moveable piece of property of my father, drove my mother from her home, and killed my brothers on their own soil."

Miss Fannie Morris whose picture is herewith is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Gid Morris.

On the north side is engraved the word "North," and the following, "Veni, vidi, vici, with five to one."

On the south side of the monument is inscribed the word, "South," the Confederate flag, with the dates
1861 and 1865, and the following:

"In memory of Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk,
who fell on this spot on June 14, 1864.

"Folding his arms across his breast he stood gazing
on the scene below, turning himself around as if to
take a farewell view. There standing, a cannon shot
from the enemy's guns crashed through his breast and
opened a wide door through which his spirit took its
flight to join his comrades on the other shore. Surely
the earth never opened her arms to allow the head of
a braver man to rest upon her bosom ; surely the light
never pushed the darkness back to make brighter the
road that leads to the Lamb, and surely the gates of
heaven never' opened wider to allow a more manly
spirit to enter therein.

"Erected by J. Gid and Mary Morris April 10, 1902."

From the monument, which marks the exact spot where Gen. Polk fell, there is a grand panoramic view for miles in all directions. The trunk of the chestnut tree which was struck by the shell which glanced and instantly killed Gen. Polk, is still standing, and nearly every one present took a piece of wood from it as a souvenir. After the unveiling "America" was sung by a choir composed of ladies and men of Marietta, and they also sang "Shall We Gather at the River?" at the conclusion of the exercises.

Benjamin H. Hill donated to Comrade Morris an acre of land on the apex of the mountain for the purpose. Addresses were made after a prayer by Rev. S. R. Belk, eulogizing the high character of Gen. Polk, Capt. W. J. Hudson, Col. Charles D. Phillips, of Marietta, Gen. A. J. West, of Atlanta (commanding the U. C. V. in that part of Georgia) by Gen. C. L. Walker, of South Carolina, and Hon. Henry Richardson, of Atlanta. A message of gratitude from Gen. Polk's relatives was delivered by a Tennessean.

Mr. Morris, the donor of the monument, in response to calls, made a patriotic speech. He and his noble wife received the hearty congratulations and thanks of nearly everybody present. Capt. A. J. West, of Atlanta, helped to bear the body of Gen. Polk from the spot where he fell. Mrs. T. J. Hardage, to whose home the remains were taken, was present. She is now
eighty-two years old. She seemed to be much affected by the proceedings.
From Gen. Leonidas Polk's Pockets.

When Gen. Polk was killed on top of Pine Mountain, his body was taken to Atlanta. A. J. West, Brig. Gen. U. C. V., has a card which was read at the dedication of the shaft : "In the pockets of Gen. Polk were found his book of common prayer for the service of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and four copies of the Rev. R. C. T. Quintard's little work entitled, "Balm for the Weary and Wounded." Upon the fly leaves of each of these little volumes, indicating for whom they were intended, were inscribed the names of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Lieut. Gen. Hardee, and Lieut. Gen. Hood, with the compliments of Lieut. Gen. Leonidas Polk, June 12, 1864. Within the fourth volume was inscribed his own name. All were saturated with blood which flowed from the wound."


John Milton's "On Time," in POEMS, 1645:

Fly envious Time, till thou run out thy race,
Call on the lazy leaden-stepping hours,
Whose speed is but the heavy Plummets pace;
And glut thy self with what thy womb devours,
Which is no more then what is false and vain,
And meerly mortal dross;
So little is our loss,
So little is thy gain.
For when as each thing bad thou hast entomb'd,
And last of all, thy greedy self consum'd,
Then long Eternity shall greet our bliss
With an individual kiss;
And Joy shall overtake us as a flood,
When every thing that is sincerely good
And perfectly divine, With Truth, and Peace, and Love shall ever shine
About the supreme Throne
Of him, t' whose happy-making sight alone,
When once our heav'nly-guided soul shall clime,
Then all this Earthy grosnes quit,
Attir'd with Stars, we shall for ever sit,
Triumphing over Death, and Chance, and thee O Time.


From; 1/14/2014:

A popular gifted program will get the axe after Ditmas Park school officials chose diversity over exclusivity.

Citing a lack of diversity, PS 139 Principal Mary McDonald informed parents in a letter that the Students of Academic Rigor and two other in-house programs would no longer accept applications for incoming kindergartners.

“Our Kindergarten classes will be heterogeneously grouped to reflect the diversity of our student body and the community we live in,” McDonald told parents in a letter posted on the photo-sharing site flickr and obtained by Ditmas Park Corner.


From; 5/6/2014:

A white, middle-aged man should not present the remake of the BBC’s Civilisation, according to a female historian who said the likes of Kenneth Clark would not be appropriate for modern viewers.

Prof Amanda Vickery, one of the BBC’s current crop of history presenters, said the new version should be gender-balanced.

The original Civilisation, broadcast in 1969, remains a landmark in factual television.

Lord Clark wrote, produced and presented the documentary series, appearing on screen immaculately dressed in suit and tie. One of the foremost art historians of his day, he guided viewers through the centuries with a script delivered in tones of received pronunciation.

However, Prof Vickery said the idea of a male presenter dispensing wisdom was outdated.


From; 5/14/2014:

The administration at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government has agreed to work with students to implement a “mandatory power and privilege training” as part of its orientation.

“We have exciting news to share — the administration has officially expressed its desire to collaborate with us on designing a privilege training component for Orientation week for every HKS degree program!” states a post in a Tumblr page that was dedicated to advocating for the training.

The post also states that the group, which calls themselves ‘Speak Out,’ will meet with the Dean some time this week to secure funding and “make sure this training is institutionalized across school.”

Although the exact stipulations of the training have not yet been determined, earlier posts on the page reveal what kind of topics the group expects the privilege-checking training to cover.

“A mandatory power and privilege training that examines components of race, gender, socioeconomic class, sexual orientation, ability, religion, international status, and power differentials for every incoming HKS student starting August 2014,” it states.

The post also claimed that this mandatory training was absolutely necessary for anyone seeking to be a leader in public policy.

“The exercise of public leadership … requires an honest assessment of structural power dynamics, of in-group and out-group dynamics, and of privilege,” one of these posts states.


From,187389; 5/18/2014:

The Center for Women’s and Gender Studies (CWGS) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USCU) will close on July 1 and the funding, previously allocated for CWGS, will be used to teach the Constitution, Declaration of Independence, and Federalist Papers.

Closing the center, which hosted a controversial LGBTQ seminar this spring, will save USCU $45,000 yearly. Additional cuts at USCU will total $450,000 from the university’s budget of $92 million-a year.


From; 5/20/2014:

Citing concerns about the "exclusive nature" of the annual honors night at Archie R. Cole Middle School, school officials have decided to scrap the tradition.

Instead, students who would normally be recognized at the annual spring tradition will be honored during team-based recognition ceremonies and graduation.

Update: School Changes Heart, Honors Night Back on the Table after Parent Outcry

The notice was sent to parents over the weekend in an e-mail signed by School Principal Alexis Meyer and Assistant Principal Dan Seger.

"Members of the school community have long expressed concerns related to the exclusive nature of Honors Night," the email stated.

By having the recognition ceremonies during team-based ceremonies, it will "afford us the opportunity to celebrate the individual and collective success of all students and their effort, progress and excellence."


From; 5/19/2014:

A new graduation policy at a Florida high school is causing outrage.

Students at Manatee High School in Bradenton, Fla., are being required to pay $20 to participate in the event. And if parents want a good view of their child receiving their diploma, the school is charging $200 for a “premium” seat.

The school district said the extra cost is a means to pay for the ceremony due to a lack of funds.

But parents are calling the whole plan ridiculous.

"It's being discriminatory,” said Mark Domer. “Economically, socially, socio-economically, it's just not fair."

"$200 is a lot of money for a preferred seating,” said parent Mayu Fielding. “Is my child more important than yours?”

The district points out other high schools in Manatee County already charge graduation fees and the school will waive the $20 charge for students with financial needs.


From,187389; 5/19/2014:

According to a recent study, the number of college presidents earning more than $1 million more than doubled in the 2012-2013 fiscal year.

The study, conducted by the Chronicle of Higher Education took into account base salary, bonuses, deferred pay, retirement and severance. It found that nine presidents went over the $1 million mark in 2013 while just four presidents made the list in 2012.

Former Ohio State president Gordon Gee led the pack of presidents as he earned $6.1 million while president. Gee is now the president of West Virginia University after resigning at Ohio State when he made several disparaging comments, including barraging the University of Notre Dame and Roman Catholics.

The other presidents earning more than $1 million include: Bowen Loftin, president of Texas A&M University at College Station; Hamid Shirvani, president of North Dakota University system; Renu Khator, University of Houston main campus; Sally Mason, University of Iowa; Michael McRobbie, Indiana University at Bloomington; Michael Adams, University of Georgia; Gordon Moulton, University of South Alabama; and Mary Sue Coleman, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.


From; 5/21/2014:

The City plans to attack economic segregation in its affordable housing plan — placing the poor in middle-class neighborhoods and the more affluent in high-poverty spots.

Housing Preservation and Development Commissioner Vicki Been said the plan to build 80,000 new affordable apartments and preserve 120,000 units would create a more diverse city.

“We really have to make economic diversity a cornerstone of that plan,” she said at a City Council budget hearing Wednesday.

“That means that in some neighborhoods that have mostly middle or upper-income housing, that we would need to put affordable housing at the very lowest income,” she said.


From; 5/22/2014:

Expect more U.S. cities to face bankruptcy like Detroit, former New York Lieutenant Gov. Richard Ravitch told CNBC's "Street Signs" Thursday.

"There are many more [cities] that are facing enormous fiscal squeezes… who are cutting education, cutting infrastructure investments and borrowing as long as the bond market permits," he said.

Ravitch, who is advising Detroit's bankruptcy judge, wrote about his prediction in an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal last week.

"We can expect to see more Detroits," he wrote.

Detroit became the nation's largest city to file for bankruptcy protection last July after being crushed by $18 billion in debt.

Ravitch said retirement obligations and health-care costs that are rising faster than inflation are putting enormous pressure on state budgets. That in turn puts pressure on city budgets. Additionally, there has been a reduction in federal aid to states and cities.


From; 5/22/2014:

Parents of students at North Hill Elementary in Rochester Hills, Michigan, have reportedly been informed that all students are “winners,” therefore the “competitive ‘urge to win’ will be kept to a minimum” at the school’s annual field day.

The flyer, flagged by Progressives Today, reads in part:

The purpose of the day is for our school to get together for an enjoyable two hours of activities and provide an opportunity for students, teachers and parents to interact cooperatively. Since we believe that all of our children are winners, the need for athletic ability and the competitive “urge to win” will be kept to a minimum. The real reward will be the enjoyment and good feelings of participation.

Bennett Staph, who claims to be a parent with a child at the school, reportedly posted a photo of the field day notice on Facebook. She said she was “proud” of her daughter for “pointing out the ridiculousness of it.”

“I am speechless…the ‘urge to win’ will be kept at a minimum. What are we teaching our children? Everyone isn’t a winner, there are winners and losers. The kids that win and get awards drive those that don’t to do better,” Staph wrote, according to the website.

_____,187389; 5/21/2014:

By taking it to the Supreme Court, they would also be challenging the Garcetti vs. Ceballos case in 2006 that ruled that government employees’ First Amendment rights are protected, Adams said. “[This appeal] shows that they haven’t learned anything from this experience. The longer this drags it plays to my advantage.”

“I don’t think this is about stupidity; it’s about malice. That’s the game.”


"and will produce them again"

From Richard Weaver's consequential THE SOUTHERN TRADITION AT BAY, 1968, 1971, 1989:

The question of whether one shall stand up for what is near and dear to him, which is the meaning of all patriotism, or, putting all sentiment aside, align himself with what is supposed to be the general drift of humanity, has produced divisions before and will produce them again. Thus the Civil war becomes only a version of the argument between the universalists and the particularists, with the Southern soldiers choosing to defend the part, made dear by nativity and associations.


The backwoods politicians of mid-nineteenth century America were unknowingly entangled in the great debate of the Schoolmen, with the Southern separatists playing the part of the Nominalists, and the Northern democrats and equalitarians that of Realists. This view of the conflict, thought unfamiliar, is not farfetched, and if all questions resolve themselves ultimately into metaphysical problems, as is not impossible, it becomes the philosophical description of the event.


From Frederick Copleston's "The Problem of Universals," in A HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY: Medieval Philosopy, Volume II, 1962, 1993:

Although what we see and touch are particular things, when we think these things we cannot help using general ideas and words, as when we say, 'This particular object which which I see is a tree, and elm to be precise.' Such a judgement affirms of a particular object that it is of a certain kind, that it belongs to the genus tree and the species elm; but it is clear that there may be many other objects besides the acutal one perceived to which the same terms may be applied, which may be covered by the same ideas. In other words, objects outside the mind are individual, whereas condepts are general, universal in character, in the sense that they apply indifferently to a multitude of individuals. But, if extramental objects are particular and human concepts universal, it is clearly of importance to discover the relation holding between them. If the fact that the subsistent objects are individual and concepts general means that universal concepts have no foundation in extramental reality, if the universality of concepts means that they are mere ideas, thne a rift between thought and objects is created and our knowledge, so far as it is expressed in universal concepts and judgements, is of doubtful validity at the very least. The scientist expresses his knowledge in abstract and universal terms, (for exampe, he does not make a statement about this particular electron, but about electrons in general), and if these terms have no foundation in extramental reality, his science is an arbitrary construction, which has no relation to reality. In so far indeed as human judgements are of a universal character or involve universal concepts, as in the statement that this rose is red, the problem would extend to human knowledge in general, and if the question as to the existence of an extramental foundation of a universal concept is answered in the negative, scepticism would result.


Perhaps one of the factors which may give the impression that the mediaevals were discussing a comparatively unimportant question is this, that they practically confined their attention to genera and and species in the category of substance. Not that the problem, even in this restricted form, is unimportant, but if the problem is raised in regard to the other categories as well, its implications in regard to at least the greater part of human knowledge becomes more evident. It becomes clear that the problem is ultimately the epistemological problem of the relation of thought to reality.


"rejection of universals"

From; viewed 5/21/2014:

Nominalism comes in at least two varieties. In one of them it is the rejection of abstract objects; in the other it is the rejection of universals. Philosophers have often found it necessary to postulate either abstract objects or universals. And so Nominalism in one form or another has played a significant role in the metaphysical debate since at least the Middle Ages, when versions of the second variety of Nominalism were introduced. The two varieties of Nominalism are independent from each other and either can be consistently held without the other.


The nominalist about universals rejects universals — but what are they? The distinction between particulars and universals is usually taken to be both exhaustive and exclusive, but whether there is such a distinction is controversial. The distinction can be drawn in terms of a relation of instantiation: we can say that something is a universal if and only if it can be instantiated by more than one entity (whether it can be instantiated by particulars or universals) — otherwise it is a particular. Thus while both particulars and universals can instantiate entities, only universals can be instantiated. If whiteness is a universal then every white thing is an instance of it. But the things that are white, e.g. Socrates, cannot have any instances.

Realists about universals typically think that properties (e.g. whiteness), relations (e.g. betweenness), and kinds (e.g. gold) are universals. Where do universals exist? Do they exist in the things that instantiate them? Or do they exist outside them? To maintain the second option is to maintain an ante rem realism about universals. If universals exist outside their instances then it is plausible to suppose that they exist outside space and time. If so, assuming their consequent causal inertness, universals are abstract objects. To maintain that universals exist in their instances is to maintain an in re realism about universals. If universals exist in their instances, and their instances exist in space or time, then it is plausible to think that universals exist in space or time, in which case they are concrete. In this case universals can be multiply located, i.e. they can occupy more than one place at the same time, for in re universals are wholly located at each place they occupy (thus if there is whiteness in re, then such a thing can be six meters apart from itself).

Thus, both on ante rem and in re realism about universals, universals enjoy a relation with space very different from that apparently enjoyed by ordinary objects of experience like houses, horses and men. For such particulars are located in space and time and cannot be located in more than one place at the same time. But universals are either not located in space or else they can occupy more than one place at the same time.


A final version of Nominalism is Resemblance Nominalism. According to this theory, it is not that scarlet things resemble one another because they are scarlet, but what makes them scarlet is that they resemble one another. Thus what makes something scarlet is that it resembles the scarlet things. Similarly, what makes square things square is that they resemble one another, and so what makes something square is that it resembles the square things. Resemblance is fundamental and primitive and so either there are no properties or the properties of a thing depend on what things it resembles.

Thus on one version of the theory a property like being scarlet is a certain class whose members satisfy certain definite resemblance conditions. On another version of the theory there are no properties, but what makes scarlet things scarlet is that they satisfy certain resemblance conditions.


From; 9/26/2011:

KENNESAW — The Georgia Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans is restoring Confederate monuments and historical markers across the state, including the Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk monument at Pine Mountain in Kennesaw.

Erected in 1902, the marble monument has suffered from time, pollution and even vandalism over the course of more than a century. With $6,000 in funding from the sale of SCV specialty tags, the nonprofit organization was able to restore the monument back to its original condition.

The Smyrna-based Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk chapter of the Georgia SCV led the restoration effort.

“General Polk was the only lieutenant general killed outside of Virginia in the entire Confederate Army,” said Martin O’Toole, past chapter commander.

“He was the highest ranking Confederate officer to be killed outside the state of Virginia and he was only equal by two others; that’s Gens. A.P. Hill and Stonewall Jackson.”

The monument was restored by conservation and restoration experts at Acworth-based Ponsford, Ltd., who have also performed similar work at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. A small fence surrounding the monument and a historical marker are in the process of being completed.

The state SCV is erecting and restoring monuments, and replacing and marking Confederate headstones throughout the state as part of the organization’s Civil War sesquicentennial awareness efforts.

Local projects include an $18,000 renovation to a historical walkway in the Marietta Confederate Cemetery and the erection of a new Confederate monument at Allatoona Pass Battlefield near the borderline of Cobb and Bartow counties.

“A lot of the money comes from donations within our organization, but the big bulk of it comes from our specialty license tags,” said Smyrna resident Tim Pilgrim, state SCV adjutant.

A North Carolina native, Polk was a founder of the University of the South and served as an Episcopal bishop prior to the Civil War, earning him the nickname “The Fighting Bishop.” According to historians, he was on Pine Mountain with a group of Confederate officers, scouting Union positions, when he was fatally struck by a 3-inch shell on June 14, 1864.

The monument, which consists of a marble shaft, is said to be located in the same spot Polk was killed.

“According to Fred Bentley Sr., who owns the property, he was told by Mr. Guy Northcutt Sr. that Guy Northcutt Sr. was there when they dedicated the marker in 1902 and that an old Confederate veteran was sitting there under one of the trees and came over and told him that they got it exactly right, that ‘that is exactly where Gen. Polk fell because I was here when he was killed,’” O’Toole said.

While the Polk monument is located on private property it is nonetheless open to the public, according to the Georgia Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.





Polk Monument, New Year's Eve, 2008

Final Day of Sewanee's Sesqui-Centennial Era (1856-1858 to 2006-2008);
Christmas Break, Closing Ceremonies, FSC of LPMS


June 14, 2010:
Shrine Altar Preparatory Liturgical Ceremony for upcoming Consecration of
The Leonidas Polk Memorial Society's First Sewanee Chapter
upon Cornerstone Memorial, Louisiana Circle, Sewanee;
scheduled for and completed on Sesqui-Centennial Sunday,
October 10, 2010.


Under Construction

Annual Memorial Service

Trinity Term

Hosted by the General Leonidas Polk Camp #1445, Cobb County, Smyrna, Fighting 12th Brigade, Georgia Division, Army of Tennessee, Sons of Confederate Veterans


June 26, 2004

Memorial Service atop Pine Mountain for 140th anniversary of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Christian martyrdom by Federal artillery fire.

Service: modified version of "The Order for the Burial of the Dead," conducted for the reposing of the soul of Bishop-General Polk. 

Liturgy: officiant Father John Roddy; from the "Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America." 

Hallowing: sanctifying blessing by Fr. Roddy.


June 25, 2005


Under Construction




The Georgia Confederate, May/June, 2007, page 4.


Under Construction




145th Anniversary Memorial Service

Reb mortar fire in direction of enemy lines





Honoring South Carolina atop Pine Mountain


Evening Memorial Service,
St. Hilda of Whitby's Anglo-Catholic Church, Atlanta





Prelude Anniversary to subsequent Saturday, June 14, 2014, and the Sesqui-Centennial of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Southern Martyrdom

Dignitaries with Newly Unveiled Historical Marker


"Train up a child in the way he should go:
and when he is old, he will not depart from it."

-Proverbs 22:6, KJV


Martyrdom Sesqui-Centennial

June 14, 1864 - June 14, 2014

From; undated:


From; 12/9/2013:


SCV Camp #1446:

_____; 5/1/2014; 6/2014:


From; 6/3/2014:

_____; 6/14:

_____; 6/10/2014:


From; 6/10/2014:

“You Yankees…Have Killed Our General Polk!” The Death Of Leonidas Polk

Monday, June 09, 2014

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park invites the public to attend a special 45 minute walk and talk at 10 a.m. on Saturday. This program will focus on the 150th anniversary of the death of Confederate General Leonidas Polk. Program participants are asked to meet at the Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center, 3370 LaFayette Road.

On the afternoon of June 14, 1864, an announcement was issued to the Confederate Army of Tennessee saying, “Comrades, you are called upon to mourn your first captain, your oldest companion in arms, Lieutenant General Polk.

He fell today at the outpost of the army…. His example is before you his mantle rests upon you.” Leonidas Polk was known as the “Bishop General,” having exchanged his robes for the uniform of a soldier at the first sign of hostility in 1861. Although beloved by his troops, he was noted for his shortcomings as a battlefield commander and his divisive scheming in army politics. Come learn about the fascinating life and the gruesome death of General Polk during this special program.

Comfortable footwear and water are recommended for this program.

For more information, contact the National Park Service, Lookout Mountain Battlefield Visitor Center at (423) 821-7786, the Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center at (423) 752-5213, or visit the park’s website at


From; 6/10/2014:


From; 6/11/2014:


From; 6/13/2014:


From; 6/13/2014:


From; 6/14/2014:

Here's a memorial image I created tonight in honor of General Polk
who was killed on Pine Mountain, near Kennesaw, GA, on this day 150 years ago.


From; 6/14/2014:


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From; 6/14/2014:

The only Event on Sesqui-Centennial Day of Mourning at
his University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee;
a Domainian Highest Holy Day, Trinity Term.

From; 6/15/2014:


From; 6/15/2014:


From; 6/15/2014:


From; 6/16/2014:


June 21, 2014:

SIR ABDIEL'S "Our Shrine on Summer Solstice," in The Resurgametica:

Our paladin community finds its own way to the intimate light.

Standing at the imprint of our fallen chieftan,
we welcome the arising within us of reasserted fundamental instinct: respecting refined priority; dignifying revivified identity; regenerating purified integrity.



Excerpts from Abraham Cowley's
"Hymn: To Light," in WORKS,1668:

A Crimson Garment in the Rose thou wear'st;
A Crown of studded Gold thou bear'st,
The Virgin Lillies in their White,
Are clad but with the Lawn of almost Naked Light.


To me the Sun is more delighful far,
And all fair Dayes much fairer are.
But few, ah wondrous few there be,
Who do not Gold prefer, O Goddess, ev'n to Thee.


But the vast Ocean of unbounded Day
In th' Empyræan Heaven does stay.
Thy Rivers, Lakes, and Springs below
From thence took first their Rise, thither at last must Flow.


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

The difference between an obelisk and a cenotaph is notable, but also reinforcing of how the Polk monument speaks to us with the sublimity worthy of its subject.

The ancient Egyptians, back when they more resembled the blonde Greeks than they do today, symbolized a ray of sunlight by constructing a tall, pointed obelisk. The object was in praise and thanksgiving of what the Sun does for us all. We are dependant upon its light.

For us, the obelisk represents the spreading effect of light emitting from one highest source at the apex of the triangle-shape positioned at the top of the tapering shaft. The symbolism is two-fold: light descends and spreads for us, and we, here down below, look upward toward the beam's origin and find a single highest point as the source.

The obelisk shows us both what is given and from where given, thus putting us in proper relationship with our dependency.

When J. Gid Morris and his wife chose the monument for honoring Leonidas Polk's death in battle, they naturally selected a shaft of marble adapted from, and corresponding in the main outline, to the obelisk's shape. Through this design, the Morris family was sharing with us the inspiring message: Polk's light spreads for us, and we look upward and find the highest point, and thereby we recall into memory his commanding leadership in natural hierarchy.

Since the monument is a memorial to someone who is buried elsewhere, we can also apply the cenotaph description. Signifying that here, far from his actual gravestone, was erected a stone of declaration telling ourselves how how he, the man himself, is a monument of significance to us. Our respect for him is deep and eternal. We come here and remember, through temporal substance, that which can never erode or decay. This is an empty tomb memorial- a cenotaph.

We can look southward from Pine Mountain for our other examples of how the meaning of obelisk and cenotaph intersect.

The highly acclaimed Georgia architectural firm, Hentz, Reid and Adler, placed an obelisk above elaborate floral elements on the face of the Villa Albacini in Macon, Georgia. The owner of the house was an enterprising businessman who owned a successful plant nursery.

Reid honored his success by incorporating flower garlands into the decoration. Perched at the top of the roof line is a small obelisk directly above the flowers, signifying a ray from the Sun which nourishes and make possible life, growth, and beauty.

In downtown Macon, stands a monument to the Women of the South who supported, suffered, and endured during War for Southern Freedom. It is capped with a tall obelisk. There are no women buried there, so the monument honors the women as an empty tomb cenotaph.

Likewise, the Polk monument is an obelisk that can be referred to as an cenotaph- the monument is both. Depending upon the occasion, choosing which term is an art of emphasis in the sublime and connecting narrative of honor across inflective possibilities.


Villa Allbacini, North Macon, Georgia

Monument to the Women of the South,
Downtown Macon, Georgia


Vatican Obelisk

From: Della Trasportatione dell'Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V fatte dal Cavallier Domenico Fontana Architetto di sua Santita Libro Primo

Written by Domenico Fontana
(Swiss, Melide 1543–1607 Rome)

Designer: Illustrations designed by Domenico Fontana (Swiss, Melide 1543–1607 Rome)

Etcher: Illustrations etched by Natale Bonifacio (Italian, 1537–1592)

Publisher: Published by Domenico Basa , Rome

Patron: Works commissioned by Pope Sixtus V (Felice Peretti) (Italian, Grottamare near Pescara 1520–1590 Rome)


From Histoire dv roy Lovis le Grand, par les medailles,
emblêmes, deuises
, 1691


Robert Mills' Washington Monument, circa 1846


Vinnie Ream's Washington Monument, 1876-1878


From Rudyard Kipling's "London Stone," November 11, 1923:

What is the tie betwixt us two
That must last our whole lives through?
As I suffer, so do you.”
That may ease the grieving.


Whitehall Cenotaph, London:


Wakefield Cenotaph, West Yorkshire, England


Voortrekker Monument, Pretoria, South Africa




(Source:; 4/26/2014)


October 12, 2013:
Shortly subsequent Sesqui-Centennial Chickamauga Reenactment and Celebration of
Generals Polk and Longstreet's victory over Rosecrans and of duPont Library
altar icon revelation; Shrine Altar Ceremony for Domainian Liturgical Advancement;
prepartory to sudden Parsifalian Revelation of the Great Seal
of Leonidas Polk's University of the South in All Saint's Chapel,
Advent Semester.


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

Just like we make the world safe for democracy today by bombing defenseless women and children in other countries, Lincoln restored us to the liberty of unity with his Northern states by invading the South with the world's most powerfully industrialized army.

Then his Federal army killed so many of us- enough of us, really- that the rest of us remaining are now free to pledge allegiance to the American flag and free to hear our own children recite the required catechism of the ugly new National Faith: "Abraham Lincoln was our greatest president." Our children are now "free" to call their Rebel ancestors "traitors" in Federally regulated public schools.

Stating the obvious in these terms will put you under supsicion of "neo-Confederate bias," or worse. But what other terms would be more accurate?

Even asking that question will be "deemed questionable," and quickly become "a cause for concern," and then become "deeply troubling," and then it's off the races where the next outrage outdoes the last.  The ruse is obvious, but you better not point it out in class at Sewanee. There are limits to our so-called "full freedom of inquiry" up here. The boundaries to these limits are marked by the word "sensitivity."

You know what I'm talking about. I know you heard what happened when that preppy fraternity boy- the blonde one who was wearing a bright bow-tie and whale shorts, who was maybe a little dutch-fortified with gin- the one who underwent extensive re-training and now does and says all the approved and required things- the one who "passionately embraces change" and overcomes uncertainty "by stepping out of my comfort zone"- the one who insists we must now "always say yes to what's next"- that one- the one who had said "check your victim privilege" to a certain group of uninvited visitors one night at the SAE house.


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