Domainian Battle Standard



"This is a Christian symbol which is organic to the founder and history of this place."

-resident Domanian's observation upon receiving initiation badge, re Polk Corps flag's significance to The University of the South, May, 2006, Easter Semester, during the Sesqui-Centennial of Bishop Polk's writing his New Orleans Letter


(Source: battle_of_perryville)


"The events of the [War Between the States and Reconstruction] have the power to arouse antagonisms that are apparently deeply rooted in the American temperament, if not in human nature itself. It is a power seemingly undiminished by the passage of years..."

-Ludwell H. Johnson, NORTH AGAINST SOUTH: The American Iliad, 1848-1877, 1978,1993


"1st Tennessee," by Rick Reeves

(Source: civil_war.html)


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

By combining the the seal of the Protestant Episcopal Church's Cross of St. George with the bright, hopeful stars of the independent Southern Confederacy
, Leonidas Polk's inspiration gave the banner that flew over his corps at the battles of Shiloh and Perryville. His same Christian soldiers later traversed his Domain at University Place when his corps crossed over the Mountain in July 1863.


Perryville Reenactment, circa 2005

1st Tennessee Regiment, Bearer & N.C.O.


"Shoulder to Shoulder"

(Source: battle_of_perryville)

(Source:; viewed 5/21/2014)

(Source:;viewed 5/21/2014)


Perryville 150th Reenactment, Advent Semester, 2012:

(Source:; viewed 5/21/2014)


"Why does it always seem like the people who invoke the movement of history actually disdain the value of the past and instead mean to force on us their own peculiar vision for the future?"

-Quentin B. Fairchild, "Flipping History, Chronicles, June 2014


(Source:; viewed 5/21/2014)


From; viewed 5/23/2014:

Southern View of History: The War for Southern Independence


General Leonidas Polk's Corps, Army of Tennessee: The Confederate General and Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana chose this Battle Flag. The Episcopal Church flag is a red cross of St. George. It is featured as the central device in Polk's Corps flag. The is a white fimbriation to separate the cross from the blue field and white stars representing the Confederate states are placed on the red cross.

The Armies of Tennessee, Mississippi, the states departments, and the Trans-Mississippi Department all had variations on size, shape color and markings on its battle flags. Many CSA battle flags were created by other unit commanders for the same reasons the Army of Northern Virginia flag was, to settle battlefield confusion. General Leonidas Polk, an Episcopal bishop, created his flag (a St. George's cross) in 2 versions for his corps; General Hardee's Corps used the famous "moon" flag of a white device (circle, oval or rectilinear, depending on when issued) on a blue field (the flag was actually invented by General Simon Bolivar Buckner); General Braxton Bragg's Corps used flags inspired by the Army of Northern Virginia flag but with 12 six-pointed stars on it; Breckenridge's Corps used First Nationals well into 1863 as their battle flags; Bowen's Missouri Division used blue flags with red borders and a white Latin cross on it; Van Dorn's Army of the West used a Middle Eastern looking flag with a red field, either yellow or white stars and borders.

As for flags inspired by the Army of Northern Virginia flag, The Army of Tennessee (Army of Tennessee ) flag of 1864 was supposed to be square also like the Army of Northern Virginia (as per Johnston's orders to the Atlanta Depot) but the depot goofed and they came back rectangular. The flags of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi & East Louisiana ( the command unit for Polk's Army of Mississippi, Forrest's Cavalry Corps and others) were also slightly rectangular but with only 12 stars. These were made in Mobile by contractors Jackson Belknap and to a lesser extent James Cameron. Neither flag had colored borders. The flags of the Department of South Carolina, Florida and Georgia were also Army of Northern Virginia flag inspired but were built differently. These square flags were made by the Charleston Depot and began showing up in April 1863. They can be discerned easily from Army of Northern Virginia flags by their wider cross and colored pole sleeves of red or blue (Army of Northern Virginia flags were tied to the poles).


From:; viewed 12/19/05:

American Confederate Hero Gen. Ector

Shirt design of a Texas hero I did and then I printed as many
I could cram into the back seat of my jalopy and headed

south to a Texas reenactment, they sold out in one day.

I like Texans...

they do love their history.


Confederate Veteran, Volume 9, Number 3, March, 1901:

4th Tennessee Infantry Veterans at Shiloh


From; viewed 2/11/2006:


Hand sewn 1st Tenn. variant replica; original unknown.


"Confederate Battle Flags 1861-1865" and "Southern Symbols of Christian Unity,"
from the Cavalier Shoppe, 2006-2007 Catalog, Volume 12, Bruce, Mississippi:


From; viewed 5/26/2014:



Fourth of July parade,
Sewanee, Tennessee, 2000



Private Family Lodge,
Sewanee, Tennessee







THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH's "Anglican Temperance Flag,"
once offered for pilgrims to Jessie Ball duPont Library,
but removed from view circa February 12, 2010, "Because it had been...":

Identified as the "Florida Flag from Shiloh"

" This is not from a Florida unit. This is an example of the first pattern of the Polk Corps flags, 45 of which were made in Memphis, TN. January, 1862. They were first issued to the Grand Division at Columbus, KY in early February. We do not know what unit it is from but it is definitely not from a FL unit as there were none at Columbus, KY."

-Greg Biggs of Flags of the Confederacy, 6/21/2004


From; 5/28/2014:


Seal of Leonidas Polk's UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH,
portico of Jessie Ball duPont Library,
once sacred home of the "Anglican Temperance Flag"


On display during brief Civil War exhibit in Archives of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH, Trinity Term, 2013.

"The Sewanee Constellation of Unity"



"and Gen. Polk's battle flag"

From; viewed 5/27/2014:

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, December 31, 1862, p. 2, c. 2

Murfreesboro', Christmas night, 1862.

The day has been observed here with more than anticipated festivity, considering the situation of our country and the surrounding circumstances. On Christmas day, wherever we may be, all our thoughts fly homewards and to distant friends. I cannot help thinking what a sad picture New Orleans presented to-day, under the iron rule of the Cyclops Beast Butler, to the happy family scenes of security and protection of Christmas a year ago! But the change is too sad and sorrowful to dwell upon, and but give place to thoughts and feelings of a stinging vengeance yet to be reeked upon the foe. Had Bouligny, the Creole duelist, have fallen in destroying the life of Butler the Beast, he would have left a name covered with glory—instead of which his defeat but doubly damns his infamy. But let us turn from such miserable contemplations to pleasanter reflections.

Last night was one of joyous revelry. Besides the private entertainments on the occasion of Christmas eve, a grand ball came off a the Courthouse, given by the officers of the 2d Kentucky and 1st Louisiana Regiments. It was gotten up in splendid style, and with that exquisite taste which Louisianans and Kentuckians have ever excelled in. The following is a copy of the card of


Murfreesboro', Dec. 24, 1862.

Mr. ______: The pleasure of your company is requested to a party to be given by the officers of the 2d Kentucky and 1st Louisiana Regiments, at the Courthouse, Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1862.

Committee of Invitation:

Mrs. Lewis Maney
" Dr. Valentine,
" Leiper
Col. Jno. A. Jaques, 1st La.
Maj. Jas. W. Hewitt, Commanding 2d Ky

Gentlemen not accompanied with ladies will be required to present this at the door.
The grand ball room was magnificently decorated, the walls being festooned with evergreens and banners, while on the corners were stacks of arms with glistening bayonets. At the head of the hall was a beautiful wreath, with the letters "Ky. and La.", beneath which was the music stand, beautifully decorated with the colors of both regiments and Gen. Polk's battle flag. At the foot was written the word "Shiloh," and the letter B, in a circle of evergreens, to represent Beauregard, in which battle the 1st Louisiana distinguished itself. On the right was "Hartsville," with the letter B over it, encircled with evergreens, to represent Breckinridge, beneath which was a splendid silken flag of the old Union, drooping in disorder and disgrace, captured from the Abolitionists at Hartsville. Following on the same side, was "Donelson," with another B over it, for Buckner, in which the gallant 2d Kentucky fought with such heroism, and underneath was draped their battle flag. On the left were the words "Pensacola—Santa Rosa," with a B over both to represent Bragg, the Commanding General. Beneath were captured flags of the enemy. In the corners of the room were large branches of cedar trees, representing a grove, to which were attached different colored lanterns, giving to the hall a most rural and romantic appearance of illuminated garden bowers.

It was the most elegant and select ball of the season, and drew together the most accomplished, beautiful and lovely women of Rutherford county which is so deservedly famed for its beauty and intelligence.

" He who hath loved not here would learn that love,
And make his heart a spirit; he who knows
That tender mystery, will love the more,
For this is love's recess, where vain men's woes
And the world's waste, have driven him far from those,
For 'tis his nature to advance or die;
* * but * * * grows
Into a boundless blessing! * * *

The coup d'oeuil was bewildering and dazzling as "the lamps o'er fair women and brave men," for beauty and chivalry were grouped together, forming exquisite tableaux in various parts of the hall—Generals Bragg, Polk, Cheatam, Breckenridge, Wheeler, all being surrounded by batteries of bright eyes, which were found far more dangerous and irresistible than the enemy's artillery. Deep emotions rose and fell with the swelling airs of voluptuous music, as fairy forms glided through the mazes of the dance, or bended gracefully to catch the broken whisper of the tale of love. The Marys and Medoras, Elizas and Ellens, Bettys and Kates, Alices and Annas, were all most exquisitely dressed, developing exquisite charms and irresistible fascinations.

At 12, midnight, the band struck up a grand march, and the company repaired to the supper room, where a magnificent "spread" awaited them. There was no sparkling champagne, but the delicious egg nogg [sic] made up for it, and wit and sentiment flowed freely. It was one of the few assemblages in life's dreary voyage that I shall never forget. Kentucky and Louisiana were inseparably connected, and their destinies forever linked together.


21st Tennessee Polk's Corps First Issue, Battle Ground Academy, Franklin, Tennessee; now at Williamson County Archives Museum:

Battle Ground Academy first building,
postcard courtesy of Rick Warick,
Heritage Foundation of Franklin and Williamson County


David Curry, "The Virtuous Soldier: Constructing a Usable Confederate Past in Franklin, Tennessee," in MONUMENTS TO THE LOST CAUSE: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory, edited by Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson, 2003, excerpts:

During the dedication rites for Battle Ground Academy in Franklin, Tennessee, in 1889, ex-Confederate general and former state governor William Bate proclaimed the school's brick edifice to be 'an educational monument ... in memory of that [Franklin] battle which occurred years agone.' Twenty five years earlier, he recalled, the soldiers of the Army of Tennessee had immortalized themselves on that very ground. Their valor deserved recognition. Yet the building of this all-male preparatory institution as a town memorial to their patriotism and heroism, Bate, said, represented a new kind of commemoration.


Bate argued that Battle Ground Academy was different because it combined the 'practical with the sentimental.' On this ground, consecrated by the blood of thousands of his compatriots, now stood a symbol of the South's modern rebirth- a place where Bate said 'the history of the past and hope of the future unite... as kindred drops mingle into one.' . . . For him, the past was not solace but a model- a tool- used by southerners to mold the individual character of a new generation confronted with the South's, and the nation's, increasingly callous and calculating industrial expansion. . . . Since the end of the war the former governor had been a prolific speaker on the South's Confederate past on the topic 'patriotic.' Bate hoped, as he had on other occasions to link the values forged on the battlefield by Confederate soldiers, who, as he understood, were overpowered by the numbers and resources of his enemy, with the veterans who, 'oppressed by unfriendly legislation' during Reconstruction, now made the best of citizens. . . . For Bate, the school was symbolic of that victory: a triumph that lay equally in the interest of the day and the actions of the past. . . . Bate asked his audience to 'look around at church and school, at smiling field, at mill and factory, and ask whence this marvelous change? You will be told, it has not come from influences abroad, but from home people, among whom this same Confederate element has been a chief.'


In the course of an hour... [Bate] described how, in his view, the framing of the Constitution had left sectional issues unresolved, and how the Confederacy was built on the principles of the founders. He continued, 'The war was waged on principle. As evidenced by the veteran's earnestness in defeat, the sacrifices made by the Confederate soldier put to rest any question of motive. At no time was he doubtful of the legality and justice of his cause. There was never a time that he did not feel he was fighting for his country.' The union of southern states is forever gone, Bate conceded, but 'when we look into the casket of our interstate struggle for historic jewels, we find none brighter or purer than those which adorn the Confederate side of this great drama.' He challenged the academy's students to 'turn the mirror of memory on this field' and preserve the 'truth of history' concerning their heritage.

Today... the school's hallways are filled with both boys and girls, and dozens of graduates matriculate each year to some of the country's most prestigious universities. . . . Though Franklin changed over the years, these sites still convey the fundamental ideal important to their original and sustained relevance to the community: the value of personal character as a defining element of southern identity.


Tennessee's William B. Bate: General, Governor, Senator

Courtesy of

"Occupying Pine Mount on June 14 were loyal units of the division of Major-General William B. Bate of Hardees' Corps, Army of Tennessee. They witnessed the sacred blood of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk, C.S.A., consecrate Georgia soil, and through it, the Christian South."

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


Hardee's Corps Flag


Tennessee Historical Commission marker 3B 18, Tennessee 25, Sumner County, near Castalian Springs:


Born 1.2 miles north. Oct. 7, 1826.
An officer in river steamboats in early life, he was later an officer in the Mexican War. A major general in the Confederate Army of Tennessee. He was Governor of Tennessee from 1883 to 1887 and U.S. Senator from 1887 to 1903. He died in Nashville, March 9, 1905 and is buried there.


Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Nashville Tennessee:

William Brimage Bate
Oct. 7, 1826,
Mar. 9, 1906.


Lies Buried Here
1826 - 1905
Brave Patriotic and Incorruptible,
He Was Called Up To Be
Governor, Major-General, United States Senator.
" Of All Human Things Nothing Is More Honorable Or More
Excellent Than to Deserve Well Of One's Country."


Tennessee Historical Commission marker 3D 49, U.S. 31,
Williamson County, Franklin, Tennessee:


Founded in 1889 as Battle Ground Academy, named for its location where the Battle of Franklin occurred in 1864, and dedicated in an address by Confederate General William B. Bate, later governor and U.S. Senator, this boys' preparatory school was located on Columbia Avenue across from the Carter house. The school was popularly called the Wall and Mooney School and the Peoples School for its early headmasters. After being destroyed by fire in 1902, it was moved to its present [second] site.


Original School



Under Construction

29th Mississippi Volunteers(?) at Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois

"Not the flag of the 29th Mississippi.  They were not with Polk's Grand Division at Columbus, KY and, as such, would not have received this flag.  We do not know what unit it came from."

  -Greg Biggs, 6/21/04


1st Tennessee Polk's Corps Second Issue at Tennessee State Museum, Nashville:


1st or 15th Tennessee Polk's Corps Second Issue, on loan from Wisconsin, at Tennessee State Museum, Nashville:

"Definitely not the flag of the 1st Tennessee lost at Perryville. Post-war reunion veteran accounts state that this flag is from some other regiment of Maney's TN Brigade, as their actual flag was shot to shreds in that battle and was in the hands of a unit color bearer after the war. Probably the flag of either the 6th or 9th Tennessee Infantry."

-Greg Biggs, 6/21/04


Under Construction

10th Mississippi Polk's Corp Second Issue at Old Capitol Museum, Jackson, Mississippi


1st Arkansas Cavalry at Old State House Museum, Little Rock, Arkansas:

"Not a Polk's Corps flag at all - but a variant of a pattern issued in the Trans-Mississippi theater." 

-Greg Biggs, 6/21/04



16th Tennessee Infantry Polk's Corps Second Issue at the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia

16th Tennessee Infantry (1906.2), which is the Museum's only Polk Pattern battle flag.  The flag is believed to have been recovered from the battlefield at Murfreesboro in December 1862 by Daniel W. Adams's Brigade, C.S.A.  The flag was found in Richmond, Virginia, in April 1865. In 1906, the flag was transferred to The Museum of the Confederacy by the U.S. War Department.

(Sources: Museum of the Confederacy
, Devereaux Cannon, Thomas Cartwright, and Greg Biggs)


Gregg Briggs on later Polk's Corps flag issues, 6/21/04:

Just before the Battle of Shiloh, General Beauregard tried to standardize the battle flags of the Army of the Mississippi.   He gave orders to Polk to have the flags of his command changed to those that resembled the Army of Northern Virginia flags.  A set of flags for Polk's Corps was made in New Orleans by flag maker Henry Cassidy in February./March of 1862 and sent up to Tennessee, but the shipment got lost.  There is some correspondence to this in the Official Records.  A second shipment was made but it did not arrive until after the battle.  Many units of Polk's Corps switched to the new flag.  There are some surviving examples for those of the 4th and 21st Tennessee Infantry.  See our CS flags website for pictures and details.

After Beaurgeard took sick leave from the army, Polk began to go back to his specific St. George's cross pattern, but with a smaller flag made of wool (the first issues were silk). They also had less stars on them. These start showing up in the late summer of 1862 for new units to the command. We do not know how many of these flags were actually made.

In late 1863, while Polk is operating in the Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, under the overall command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Johnston starts to standardize the battle flags of that department. Starting in October, a new type of flag is issued coming from Mobile flag makers Jackson and Sarah Belknap. These are rectangular 12 star ANV style battle flags. Polk's Army of Mississippi receives them in 1864 before they move to Georgia to fight in the Atlanta Campaign. A number of these flags still survive today. Please see our CS flags website for pictures and more information.


From; viewed 5/21/2014:

The Polk pattern battle flag, which incorporated a St. George’s cross, was designed by Gen. Leonidas Polk, an Episcopal bishop before the war. It was issued to units beginning in January 1862. It incorporated eleven white stars on a red St. George's cross on a blue field.


April 17, 2004:
The Battery in Charleston, South Carolina, preceding funeral march procession
for the Hunley Eight; Capt. Pappy Harmon and the 28th Georgia of Resaca, Georgia
(, including 48th Alabama. 


"Sunset in the West," 140th Battle of Franklin Reenactment, Rippavilla Plantation, October 1-2, 2004:


Company A, First Tennessee Rock City Guards, Nashville, Tennessee




5th Regiment, Tennessee Infantry

(Raised in Paris, Tennessee, 1861; never lost a flag in battle.)



February 5, 2005:
Old Stone Church, Ringgold, Georgia


March 6, 2005:
St. Thomas Episcopal Church,
Fifth Avenue, New York City, New York

Confederate Battle Flag Shield,
St. Thomas Fifth Avenue, New York City


St. George Slays the Evil Dragon;
St. Thomas Fifth Avenue.


"The legend - in which George slays a fierce dragon, symbolising evil, and rescues
an innocent maiden from death - is thought to have appeared as late as the 12th century
and may have origins in the story of Perseus, who defended the virgin Andromeda against
the monstrous Medusa. To Christians, George is a historical figure, an archetypal soldier
made famous for tearing down Diocletian's edict against Christianity. For this act he
is believed to have been beheaded in Lydda, Palestine (in AD 303),
thus becoming an early Christian martyr."

-From /george_st.shtml; viewed 8/9/05



The Cross of St. George at Christ Church, Monteagle, Tennessee


April 6, 2005:
Vanderbilt University, Peabody campus, Nashville, Tennessee


Constructed in 1935 by George Peabody College of Teachers in part, with funds raised at personal sacrifice during the Great Depression by Tennessee women of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in memory of their fathers and brothers who fought in the War Between North and South, 1861-65. Dedicated to the education of teachers for a region sorely in need of them. Renovated by Vanderbilt University in 1988 for continued service to all its students.



, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1950

"One hundred and ten girls live a chattery life there- except during quiet house- and fifty of them are descendants of Confederate soldiers who reside there without payment of rent."









Memorial Hall

This dormitory was built in 1935 as a rent-free residence for women students of Confederate ancestry, with financing by the United Daughters of the Confederacy and Peabody College. The building was modernized and renovated in 1988 and now has computer connections for the residents, seminar rooms, exercise practice, and music practice rooms.

-From, viewed 4/24/05

"Memorial" on official campus map, Vanderbilt web site, April 2005

Official campus map in Confederate Memorial Hall, April 2005

Official dorm signage in Confederate Memorial Hall, April 2005


Representative news headlines regarding the Confederate Memorial Hall scandal:

9/17/02- Peabody Dorm Is Gone With The Wind

9/17/02- Renaming Of Confederate Memorial Hall Long Overdue

9/18/02- Southern Bashing On The Rise

9/19/02- Confederate Memorial Hall Renamed Memorial Hall

9/19/02- VU's Confederacy of Dunces

9/20/02- VU Will Delete 'Confederate' From Hall Name

9/20/02- Daughters 'Outraged' By Name Change, UDC Considers Suit In Wake of Decision

9/20/02- Confederates Rise Again

9/20/02- Renaming 'Confederate' Rewrites History

9/24/02- Letters To The Editor: Vanderbilt Administration Bows To Pressure From Politically Correct

9/24/02- Looking Back: Confederate Hall's Storied Past

9/30/02- UDC Takes A Stand Against Vanderbilt

10/02- The Vanderbilt Problem AND The Problem With Vanderbilt

10/1/02- Letters To The Editor: Vanderbilt Administration Bows To Pressure From Politically Correct

10/4/02- Slumbering Memories Aroused By Building's Name Change

10/6/02- Changes At Vanderbilt Part Of Push To Boost Diversity

10/8/02- Uproar Wrong In Vanderbilt U. Name Change Of 'Confederate Memorial Hall'

10/8/02- Firestorm Of Protest Over Name Change

10/11/02- Legal Battle On Horizon For Vanderbilt

10/17/02- United Daughters Of Confederacy Sue Vanderbilt


10/18/02- Vanderbilt Sued Over Building Name

10/18/02 -Confederate Group Sues Over Vanderbilt Dorm

10/18/02- United Daughters Of Confederacy Sue Vanderbilt

10/21/02- Confederacy Discussion Draws Opposing Perspectives

10/24/02 -Greens Rally Behind Vanderbilt University's Plan To Rename 'Confederate' Dorm.

10/25/02- Lawsuit Filed, Students Support Administration- Black Student Alliance And Green Party Begin Letter Writing Campaign To Show Support For Name Change

10/25/02- Frankly, They Give A Damn

11/1/02- At Vanderbilt, Confederate Controversy Goes To Court

11/2/02- Dorm Debacle At Vandy

11/8/03- Revising History Clouds Truth

11/20/02- Jonathan Farley: Remnants Of The Confederacy Glorifying A Time Of Tyranny

12/01/02- VU Professor's Essay Sparks 'Confederate' Backlash

12/3/02- Vanderbilt Professor Calls Confederates 'Cowards'

12/6/02- Private Property And The American Heritage

12/9/02- Some Genocides Are More Politically Correct Than Others

12/10/02- Inciting Campus Controversy

12/11/02- Race Dilemma Continues

12/19/02- Hate And Ignorance At Vanderbilt

1/9/03- VU Asks Privacy For Those Who Renamed Confederate Hall

1/11/03- Court Asked To Reject Secrecy in 'Confederate' Vote

1/13/03- Political Correctness Grips Nation's Colleges

1/14/03- Vanderbilt Seeks To Withhold Documents

1/14/03- Vanderbilt Moves Into Modern Age Of Secrecy

1/21/03- Court Rules On Papers

1/24/03- Vanderbilt Seeks To Withhold Documents

2/1/03- Is There a Liberal-Conservative War Going On In The Administration At Vanderbilt University?

2/27/03- Old South, New South Clash On Vanderbilt's Campus: Decision To Change Building's Name Lands University In Legal Battle

4/4/03- Students Must Speak Up, Foster Inclusion Of All Groups

8/29/03- VU Asks Court To Drop UDC Lawsuit

9/23/03- Motion For Summary Judgment Under Advisory

9/30/03- Bass, Berry & Sims Wins Summary Judgment For Vanderbilt

9/30/03- Vanderbilt Wins ‘Confederate’ Suit

9/30/03- Court Ruling Supports Vanderbilt Decision to Change Name Of Building

Judge Irvin Kilcrease's findings against the United Daughters of the Confederacy

10/1/03- Court: Vanderbilt Can Take 'Confederate' Off Building

10/2/03- Permission Granted To Change Name Of Vanderbilt's Confederate Hall

10/3/02- 'Confederate' To Come Off Building

10/10/03- Court Allows Vanderbilt U. To Remove 'Confederate' From Building's Name

10/7/03- UDC Matter Mishandled

10/10/03- Court Allows Vanderbilt U. To Remove 'Confederate' From Building's Name

10/11/03- 'Confederate' To Come Off Building

10/11/03- The Enemy Of Your Enemy Is Not Always Your Friend

10/17/03- Vandy Has Sold Out Once Again To Political Correctness

10/23/03- Round II Of Fight Over Vanderbilt Dorm Starts As UDC Files Appeal

10/24/03- Guilt Over Slavery Should Have Ended By Now

10/24/03- UDC To Appeal Decision

12/12/03- NY Times Article Causes Row

4/26/04- Violation In Tennessee - Vanderbilt University

10/22/04- Blood Spills Yet Again In Latest Skirmish

10/22/04- Our Civil War

11/04- Ethnic Cleansing Of Dixie

12/04- Removal Of Confederate Images Is Allowing A New South To Rise

12/04- Vanderbilt University Repudiates 70 Year-Old Obligation To Name Dorm In Accordance With Generous Terms Of UDC Gift; Lawsuit To Be Appealed; University Claims name 'Confederate' Discriminates Against Minorities

12/1/04- Appeals Court To Hear Confederate Case

12/1/04- We Know We Promised, But Times Changed

12/8/04- Memorial Suit To Be Appealed

12/22/04- Deep in Dixie’s heart, rebel symbols fall one by one, South slowly shedding reminders of its still-divisive Civil War past

12/26/04- South Slowly Removing Symbols

1/5/05- Vanderbilt 'Confederate' Dorm Case Opens

1/6/05- Legal Arguments In Confederate Memorial Hall Case

1/6/05- Vanderbilt Case Argues Confederate Role In South


1/6/05- Confederate Memorial Hall Time Line

1935: With a $50,000 donation from the United Daughters of the Confederacy, George Peabody College for Teachers builds Confederate Memorial Hall, a $150,000 dormitory.

1979: Financially ailing Peabody merges with Vanderbilt University.

1988-89: Vanderbilt renovates the dormitory, igniting a campus debate over its name. The university subsequently puts a plaque describing the building's history near the front door.

July 2000: Gordon Gee takes office as Vanderbilt's chancellor, or chief executive.

September 2002: Vanderbilt announces it will drop the word ''Confederate'' from the building's name in an effort to make the school more welcoming to people of all races and ethnic backgrounds. The university does not let UDC leaders know about the move before making it public.

October 2002: The UDC sues Vanderbilt in Davidson County Chancery Court, accusing the school of breach of contract.

September 2003: On his last day on the bench before retiring, Davidson County Chancellor Irvin Kilcrease Jr. dismisses the UDC's lawsuit. Kilcrease rules that Vanderbilt must be allowed to change the building's name so it can recruit African-American and other minority students and professors and says the Peabody-UDC contracts were signed at a different time in American history, when racial segregation was legal.

October 2003: The UDC says it will appeal Kilcrease's decision to the Tennessee Court of Appeals.

Yesterday: The Court of Appeals hears arguments by the two sides but doesn't issue a ruling.

(Source: Michael Cass,


1/7/05- Rewriting History

1/7/05- Court Hears 'Confederate' Dorm Arguments

1/7/05- So Many Memorial Names Will Have To Be Changed

1/7/05- Erasing History In The Name Of Political Correctness

1/10/05- Vanderbilt Should Not Remove 'Confederate' From Building Name

1/12/05- Confederate Suit Returns To Court

1/13/05- Vanderbilt University In Court Again Defending Its Right To Remove The Word 'Confederate' From Campus Building

2/12/05 Colleges Suffer Identity Crisis

2/13/05- Colleges Downplay 'Old South'

2/24/05- Battle Over The Past Rages On In An Evolving South

2/28/05- Southern Universities Shed Their Stereotypes

3/11/05- Airbrushing History

Court of Appeals Reverses Judge Kilcrease


"Their homeland was invaded"

Judge Cain's Masterful Concurring Opinion

William B. Cain

215 Supreme Court Building
401 7th Ave. No.
Nashville, TN 37219-1407

Born Jan. 30, 1932 , Old Hickory, TN. Married, 2 children, St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, Columbia, TN. Middle Tennessee State University; Cumberland University School of Law, 1958; delegate to 1965 Constitutional Convention; city attorney, city of Columbia, 1969-73; U. S. Army Corps of Military Police, 1950-1952; State Commander, The American Legion of Tennessee, 1969-70; member, National Legislative Commission, The American Legion, 1971- 96; appointed circuit judge 22nd judicial district, Dec. 31, 1986, elected 1988, re-elected 1990; appointed to Court of Appeals April 1998; elected August 1998.

(Source, as of 5/28/2005)

5/4/05- University Loses Court Battle Over Controversial Dorm Name

5/5/05- Confederates Defeat Vanderbilt

5/5/05- Confederates In The Dorm

5/5/05- Nashville: Vanderbilt Loses Bid To Rename Dorm

5/5/05- Confederates Beat VU In Court

5/5/05- Vanderbilt U. Loses 'Confederate' Bid (Forces of P.C. Actually LOSE One, For Once...!)

5/5/05- Vanderbilt Loses Bid To Drop 'Confederate' From Dorm Name

5/5/05- 'Confederate' Must Remain On College Dorm, Court Rules

5/5/05- Pay To Strip 'Confederate From Dorm, Court Tells VU

5/6/05- Vandy Should Surrender On Confederate Battle

5/9/05- Sanity Prevails

5/10/05- Court To Vandy: Come Up With The Cash, Or Leave Dorm's Name Alone

5/18/05- Right To Rename Dorm Worth $50,000 To Alumnus Of Vandy

5/18/05- Doctor Offers Heritage Group Money For Dorm Name

5/18/05- Black Vandy Grad Trying To Buy Out 'Confederate' Name

5/18/05- Alumnus Donates Thousands To University In Battle Over Dorm Name

Spring, 2005- UDC Beats Vandy

6/05- The UDC Succeeds In Court Over 'Confederate' Name At Vanderbilt

6/9/05- War Rages On Over Confederate Symbols

6/9/05- Battle Over Confederate Symbols Still Simmering In Tennessee

6/9/05- Tennessee Seeks Solution For Handling Civil War Past


(Source:; viewed 7/11/05)


7/12/05- Vanderbilt Not To Appeal Ruling On Confederate Dorm Name

7/12/05- Vanderbilt Decides To Leave 'Confederate' Carved On Dorm; Choice: Keep Name Or Repay Daughters Of The Confederacy

7/12/05- Vanderbilt Dropping Court Fight Over Dorm

7/12/05- Vanderbilt Won't Appeal 'Confederate' Ruling

7/12/05- College Ends 'Confederate' Dorm Dispute

7/12/05- 'Confederate' To Stay In Vanderbilt Dorm Name- School Said Name Hurts Efforts To Promote Diversity


"The university plans to create an annual lecture series or other educational events to keep issues of race, history, memory and the Civil War on students' minds."

From, Tuesday, 07/12/05:

'Confederate' will remain in name of Vanderbilt dorm

'Time to move on,' university says of losing three-year legal fight


Staff Writer

The words Confederate Memorial Hall — words that evoke images of slavery for some people and fallen heroes for others — will remain inscribed in stone on a Vanderbilt University building after a three-year legal battle.

Vanderbilt decided not to appeal a state court ruling ordering that the Nashville school either keep the in-scription on the building or pay damages that could have topped $1 million to the United Daughters of the Confederacy, university spokes-man Michael Schoenfeld said yesterday.

The UDC's Tennessee division raised $50,000 during the Great Depression to help pay for the building, which was part of the former George Peabody College for Teachers at the time, and vigorously challenged Vanderbilt's plans to remove the name in 2002. Peabody merged with Vanderbilt in 1979.

Schoenfeld said the university, which had hoped to create what it considered a more welcoming environment by taking down a word some find offensive, is dropping the matter and leaving the full name on the 70-year-old residence hall.

"We believed the best option for Vanderbilt at this time was to move on," he said. "Taking on this issue was something important for the university to do, and taking it any further was reaching a point of diminishing returns."

UDC representatives said they were thrilled by the decision, which followed a May 3 ruling by the Tennessee Court of Appeals.

"Slavery was terrible, and the Civil War was terrible in terms of the blood shed," said Doug Jones, a Nashville-based attorney for the organization. "But we don't need to forget it."

Vanderbilt said that simply bringing attention to the issue was a victory, and that the building's new name in all other official references, Memorial Hall, was taking hold on campus.

The legal fight concerned only the Confederate Memorial Hall inscription on the building's stone pediment. The Court of Appeals ruled that the inscription must stay up as long as the building does.

The university plans to create an annual lecture series or other educational events to keep issues of race, history, memory and the Civil War on students' minds, Schoenfeld said.

Dr. Eddie Hamilton, a Nashville physician and Vanderbilt School of Medicine graduate who had offered to give $50,000 to help Vanderbilt remove the name by paying damages to the UDC, said he was disappointed but not surprised by the decision. He said the university never contacted him about his offer, which he had hoped would inspire other donations.

Hamilton, an African-American, compared Confederate symbols with Nazi swastikas, which he said would not be allowed to stay on a building in Tennessee.

"Slavery was evil, and the Confederacy supported slavery," he said. "For us to be even having a discussion of whether it should come down is inappropriate. But life goes on. We, as a race of people, this is not going to affect us in terms of slowing down our progress."

But Jones and Deanna Bryant, president of the UDC's Tennessee division, said most of the soldiers honored by Confederate Memorial Hall were not slave owners. They were simply men "trying to defend their homes," said Jones, who is a former president of the Battle of Nashville Preservation Society.

"It's a victory for the entire South," Bryant, who lives in Franklin, said of the decision to keep the inscription on the building. "Regardless, the War Between the States happened. Just because somebody doesn't like something, you can't erase it from the history books."


"We have addressed this very aggressively and very positively from the beginning, and we're now going to use this as an educational opportunity."

From; Wednesday, July 13, 2005:

Vanderbilt Agrees to Leave the Word 'Confederate' on a Building, Ending a 3-Year Fight


Vanderbilt University announced on Tuesday that it was dropping its three-year court fight to remove the name Confederate Memorial Hall from the stone front of a campus dormitory.

Vanderbilt dropped "Confederate" from the dormitory's official name in 2002, after more than 20 years of debate and efforts to create a more "welcoming environment" on the campus, said Michael J. Schoenfeld, a university spokesman. The United Daughters of the Confederacy, which partly financed the building, sued Vanderbilt for breach of contract when it decided to permanently remove the name from the dormitory's pediment.

The case was dismissed in a Tennessee county court in 2002, but the United Daughters brought it to the Tennessee Court of Appeals. In May, the court ruled that Vanderbilt could not remove the chiseled name unless it reimbursed the UDC with today's equivalent of the $50,000 the organization raised during the Great Depression for the dormitory, which was built in 1935.

The university decided to drop the issue rather than appeal the court's decision.

Deanna R. Bryant, president of the UDC's Tennessee division, said she was "ecstatic" about Vanderbilt's decision not to appeal and called it "a triumph for American history."

"This was never about hurting the university," Ms. Bryant said. "The building is a memorial for the Confederate soldiers, and our great-great-grandmothers literally saved nickels and dimes for this. Yes, slavery was bad, but it wasn't the only issue in the War Between the States. You can't erase pages of history just because a lot of bad things happened."

Mr. Schoenfeld said the university did not see any value in continuing the legal debate. Although the word "Confederate" will remain on its pediment, the building will continue to be known as Memorial Hall.

"We disagree with the legal matter, but the university has achieved what it set out to achieve -- we have addressed a divisive issue on campus and brought attention to it," Mr. Schoenfeld said. "We have addressed this very aggressively and very positively from the beginning, and we're now going to use this as an educational opportunity."

The university plans to create an annual forum on such issues as race, society, culture, and the Civil War, using the lawsuit as a marker of "a very complex and controversial issue," Mr. Schoenfeld said.


7/13/05- Southern Heritage Remains At Vanderbilt

7/13/05- Lost Cause At Vanderbilt

7/14/05- Tennessee Guerilla Women- Challenging the Conservative Politics of Sexism, Homophobia, Racism And Classism- Vanderbilt To Keep Racist Memorial

7/18/05- What Does Your Family's Name Mean To You?

7/21/05- Vanderbilt Goes PC

7/25/05- Tennessee, Alabama Face New Rifts Over Old Confederate Symbols

8/31/05- Vanderbilt Wrong To Renege Deal With UDC

12/12/05- Monument Law

1/27/06- Historical Commission Needed

2/06- Confederate Heritage and Vanderbilt



5/23/06- Vanderbilt Rising

" Vanderbilt University has been on a faculty hiring spree and is about to officially announce a series of moves that have been rumored in recent weeks in literary and black studies circles as extremely significant... The round of hires that will be announced in the next week build on recruitment over the last few years in both black studies and the English department that is seen as a repositioning of the university. Several young scholars have been hired in what was a very quiet black studies program and another search is under way there... Many of the scholars will be involved in Vanderbilt’s interdisciplinary programs, several of which focus on the Americas broadly defined. And multiculturalism and interdisciplinary have been key qualities that the university has been seeking out...'At Vanderbilt, we’re not just talking the talk, but making these incredibly great hires,' said Tracy D. Sharpley-Whiting, director of the African American and Diaspora Studies Program. Sharpley-Whiting’s research topics range from Paris in the Jazz Age to women in hip hop and she said that the university is showing unusual willingness to embrace a range of multicultural work and minority scholars."

-From; viewed 5/23/06

6/6/06- Axis Tilts For Black Faculty: Pressure On Duke To Build Diversity

" Now Baker and his wife, Charlotte Pierce-Baker, a professor in women's studies, have decided to depart Duke for Vanderbilt University. 'We just got absolutely unrefusable offers,' said Houston Baker, who added that the recruiting by Vanderbilt began before the lacrosse story broke. At least six black professors are leaving Duke, a university recently known for its aggressive hiring of black scholars. The departures come at a time of soul- searching on the campus in the aftermath of the lacrosse ordeal that pummeled Duke's image and exposed racial rifts."

-From; viewed 6/6/06


"Ransom and Davidson's reaction to Dayton, and the rumors that Ransom was working on God Without Thunder, alarmed Vanderbilt. The group had always struggled against Vanderbilt's political structure. Years before, Edwin Mims, the chairman of the English department and a promoter of the New South, had tried to stop publication of The Fugitive and the chancellor of the university refused a subscription to the magazine. After Dayton, Chancellor James Kirkland remarked that Vanderbilt's reaction to the trial would be to build more laboratories. In addition, one of the industrial capitalists the Agrarians would soon criticize had funded Vanderbilt's founding to promote sectional reconciliation, or, in the Agrarian view, subordination. Vanderbilt never openly opposed the Agrarian movement as it had the Fugitives; instead it ignored them, which aroused scorn from Tate, Owsley, Ransom, and Davidson nevertheless."

-Bob Holladay, "The Gods that Failed: Agrarianism, Regionalism, and the Nashville-Chapel Hill Highway," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Volume LXIV, Number 4, Winter, 2005


Vanderbilt University and UDC Money:

Scholarships and Need-Based Financial Aid: THE UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY SCHOLARSHIP was established in 1927 by the Mary Mildred Sullivan Chapter of the UDC.

(Source:, viewed 4/24/05.)

Scholarship and Loan Funds: THE CAPTAIN HENRY PARRISH KERNOCHRAN MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP was established in 1930 by the Mary Mildred Sullivan Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy to benefit students from Louisiana.

viewed 4/24/05.)


UDC Emblem: Live, Pray, Think, Dare, Love


"The revisionists are busily rewriting our history and textbooks. To many, the Confederacy is to be eliminated. A concerted effort has been made to change the names of streets, discard monuments, and pretend that the heroes of the Confederacy did not exist. One of the UDC's objectives is to preserve Confederate history for future generations. Truth cannot be denied, and it is our responsibility to see that a true record is preserved. Ignoring the threat is easy, but preserving our history takes effort and dedication. Remember Jefferson Davis' command at "

-Mary Moore Williams, Ex-President General, UDC Magazine, Volume LXVIII, Number 3, March 2005


Confederate Veteran, October 1915, Vol. XXIII, No. 10: "Emblem and Motto, U.D.C."

"Live, Pray, Think, Dare, Love"


"As President-General Rassie Haskins White put it, 'I love the United Daughters of the Confederacy because they have demonstrated that Southern women may organize themselves into a nationwide body without losing womanly dignity, sweetness, or graciousness.' "

-Karen L. Cox, DIXIE'S DAUGHTERS, The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture, 2003


April 6, 2005




April 22, 2005:
Monument to the Unknown Confederate Dead,
Oakland Cemetery; erected by the Atlanta Ladies Memorial Association, 1894.


May 7, 2005:
Bishop-General Leonidas Polk, C.S.A.,
bordered by Generals Robert E. Lee (l) and Albert Sidney Johnston (r),
Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans, Louisiana.


June 4, 2005:
Confederate Memorial at Cemetery of the Confederate Dead,
Tullahoma, Tennessee


Tennessee Historical Commission marker 2E 44, Tullahoma:


1 Mile SW are buried 407 unknown Confederates. Many of these died in one of the hospitals established here when Tullahoma was headquarters for the Army of Tennessee during the first six months of 1863, following the Battle of Murfreesboro and preceding the withdrawal of the Army to Chattanooga.


June 4, 2005:
Army of Tennessee Headquarters monument, Tullahoma, Tennessee


June 5, 2005:
1st Regiment Tennessee Custom Replica, within
Confederate Circle, Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Nashville, Tennessee;
courtesy of John Turner.


June 25, 2005:
Annual Memorial atop Pine Mountain.


August 13, 2005:
Confederate Cemetery, Marietta, Georgia


October 8, 2005:
Forrest's Escort and Haralson Invincibles at Centennial anniversary rededication
of Gallant Pelham monument Jacksonville, Alabama.


Battle of Atlanta Reenactment, Conyers, Georgia, November 5, 2005:

1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment, Company D, Army of Tennessee




December 3, 2005:1st Regiment Tennessee and 10th Mississippi
custom replicas; courtesy of Mr. John Turner, Nashville, Tennessee.


Courtesy of Mr. John Turner:


December 12, 2005: Custom replica of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH'S "Anglican Temperance Flag" enroute from Dothan, Alabama, to Nashville, Tennessee.


December 5, 2005:
Landmark Booksellers, Franklin, Tennessee


Courtesy of Mr. David Fraley of The Carter House, Franklin, Tennessee, December 6, 2005:







December 7, 2005:
John C. Carter monument, Winstead Hill, Battle of Franklin,

Commissioned Brigadier to rank from July 7, 1864. Carter had worked his way up from the rank of Captain by distinguishing himself with The Army of Tennessee at Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro & Chickamauga. Taking part in the Atlanta Campaign, Carter was in temporary command of Cheatham's Division at The Battle of Jonesboro. Attacking to the left of Gist's Brigade at Franklin, Carter's Regiments; the 1st, 4th Provisional, 6th, 8th, 9th, 16th, 27th, 28th, and 50th Tennessee were "torn by canister and musketry before they reached the locust abatis". Carter rode recklessly in front of his Brigade espousing the "Lead by Example" credo that had come to be the norm in The Army of Tennessee. Less than 150 yards from the works Carter tumbled from his horse, shot through the body. Shortly thereafter "His Boys" of the 1st Tennessee penetrated the Federal Works. He died on December 10, 1864 at The Harrison House and was laid to rest at Rose Hill Cemetery in Columbia, Tennessee.


"Pilgrims' Calling Cards at Sewanee," University Cemetery, December 8, 2005:

Brigadier-General Francis Asbury Shoup, C.S.A,


Major George Rainsford Fairbanks, C.S.A.


" You ridiculed her because of what she said about it; but she spoke the truth. Why didn't you ridicule the truth instead of her? You didn't, and you won't, because if you had, you would have made her look better and you look worse. The cause of truth would have advanced at your expense, because your cause of hatred, intolerance, and envy would be exposed for all to see. So, what do you think she'll do next?"

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


December 11, 2005:
Polk's Battery design (reunion flag replica, or recent innovation?)


From:; viewed 5/29/2014:


Also called Company "G",
Artillery Corps of Tennessee

This company was mustered into Confederate service at Camp Brown, Union City, on August 7, 1861. Individual records show a good many enlistments from" Hardeman County at Bolivar, May 25, 1861.

It was first reported by Brigadier General Charles Clark as being present, without harness, at Union City, on August 5, 1861. On September 7 it was reported at Columbus, Kentucky, in Colonel W. H. Stephens' Brigade. On October 24, still at Columbus, it was reported in Colonel J. Knox Walker's Brigade, Brigadier General Gideon I. Pillow's Division.

On November 7, 1861, at the Battle of Belmont, Missouri, Polk's Battery, along with Jackson's, was sent across the river to reinforce General Pillow. The steamer lost its gangplank in attempting to make the landing, and had to return. Polk's Battery was landed later in the day, but too late to see action.

On March 9, 1862 it was in Colonel Preston Smith's Brigade, Corinth, Mississippi. In the Battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, it was in Brigadier General Bushrod R. Johnson's Brigade, Major General B. F. Cheatham's Division. It entered the battle with 102 engaged, reported four killed, 18 wounded, two missing. Out of 81 horses in service it lost 30; and out of six guns used, lost two guns and six caissons. One of the missing was Captain Polk, who had his leg broken, and was taken prisoner.

In the morning of the 6th, the 154th Tennessee Regiment, Blythe's Mississippi Regiment, and a section of Polk's Battery were temporarily detached from Johnson's Brigade by General Bragg, and placed on the right. Colonel Preston Smith, of the 154th Tennessee spoke highly of the section of Polk's Battery with him.

He stated that Sergeant Pirtle and Corporal John Kenney could hardly be persuaded to leave their gun after all the horses had been killed, and the gun had to be abandoned. General B. R. Johnson also commended the conduct of the section with him. Johnson was wounded, and Colonel Smith took command of the brigade, bringing the two sections together in the afternoon.

Following the Battle of Shiloh, since the term of enlistment had almost expired, and the battery was disrupted by injuries, the loss of its captain, two of its guns, and all of its caissons, the company was disbanded at Corinth, Mississippi in April 1862. By comparison of the muster rolls, 23 men from Polk's Battery were identified as having reenlisted in Carnes' Battery, and others may have enlisted in other batteries.


The 199th Birthday celebration for General Robert E. Lee, C.S.A.,
Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta, January 19, 2006:


Abraham Cowley's "The Resurrection," in POEMS, 1656:

Not Winds to Voyagers at Sea,
Nor Showers to Earth more necessary be,
(Heav'ens vital seed cast on the womb of Earth
To give the fruitful Year a Birth)
Then Verse to Virtue, which can do
The Midwifes Office, and the Nurses too;
It feeds it strongly, and it cloathes it gay,
And when it dyes, with comely pride
Embalms it, and erects a Pyramide
That never will decay
Till Heaven it self shall melt away,
And nought behind it stay.

Begin the Song, and strike the Living Lyre;
Lo how the Years to come, a numerous and well-fitted Quire,
All hand in hand do decently advance,
And to my Song with smooth and equal measures dance.
Whilst the dance lasts, how long so e're it be,
My Musicks voyce shall bear it companie.
Till all gentle Notes be drown'd
In the last Trumpets dreadful sound.

That to the Spheres themselves shall silence bring,
Untune the Universal String.
Then all the wide extended Sky,
And all th' harmonious Worlds on high,
And Virgils sacred work shall dy.
And he himself shall see in one Fire shine
Rich Natures ancient Troy, though built by Hands Divine.

Whom Thunders dismal noise,
And all that Prophets and Apostles louder spake,
And all the Creatures plain conspiring voyce,

Could not whilst they liv'ed, awake,
This mightier sound shall make
When Dead t'arise, And open Tombs, and open Eyes

To the long Sluggards of five thousand years.
This mightier Sound shall make its Hearers Ears.
Then shall the scatter'ed Atomes crowding come
Back to their Ancient Home,
Some from Birds, from Fishes some,
Some from Earth, and some from Seas,
Some from Beasts, and some from Trees.

Some descend from Clouds on high,
Some from Metals upwards fly,
And where th' attending Soul naked, and shivering stands,
Meet, salute, and joyn their hands.
As disperst Souldiers at the Trumpets call,
Hast to their Colours all.
Unhappy most, like Tortur'ed Men,
Their Joynts new set, to be new rackt agen.
To Mountains they for shelter pray,
The Mountains shake, and run about no less confus'd then They.

Stop, stop, my Muse, allay thy vig'orous heat,
Kindled at a Hint so Great.
Hold thy Pindarique Pegasus closely in,
Which does to rage begin,
And this steep Hill would gallop up with violent course,
'Tis an unruly, and a hard-Mouth'd Horse,
Fierce, and unbroken yet,
Impatient of the Spur or Bit.
Now praunces stately, and anon flies o're the place,
Disdains the servile Law of any settled pace,
Conscious and proud of his own natural force.
'Twill no unskilful Touch endure,
But flings Writer and Reader too that sits not sure.


January 27, 2006:
Pilgrim's Calling Card upon the Great Seal of
Leonidas Polk's University of the South,
Hearth Room, Sewanee Inn


January 28, 2006:
Site of Rt. Rev. Leonidas Polk's former Ashwood plantation home;
Polk family's St. John's Episcopal plantation church in upper left background,
Ashwood, Tennessee.


January 29, 2006:
Confederate Memorial Hall, Mnt. Olivet Cemetery, Nashville, Tennesse



February 2, 2006:
Rose Hill Cemetery, Columbia, Tennessee


From; viewed 5/29/2014:


February 2, 2006: Elm Springs,
International Headquarters of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, Columbia, Tennessee


February 3, 2006:
Gentlemen's Private Lodge, Sewanee,
Easter Semester


February 4, 2006:
Walker County Regional Heritage Museum,
Chickamauga, Georgia


April 10, 2006:
Monument for the Confederate Dead,
Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans, Louisiana,
during the Leonidas Polk Bi-Centennial,
Easter Semester.


April 13, 2006:
Garden District manse, New Orleans,


April 14, 2006:
Leonidas Polk Shrine, Christ Church Episcopal Cathedral,
New Orleans, Louisiana


May 20, 2006:
Battle of Resaca Reenactment


June 4, 2006:
10th Mississippi at Confederate Monument, Confederate Circle, Mount Olivet Cemetery, Nashville, Tennessee, United Daughters of the Confederacy's annual memorial service; courtesy of John Turner.


June 14, 2006:
Kennesaw National Battlefield


June 18, 2006:
SCV Debutante and Guard,
Gainesville, Georgia


July 4, 2006:
Atlanta Cyclorama


Nash Farm Battlefield Dedication and Reenactment, Lovejoy, Georgia, August 20, 2006:


Battle of Tunnel Hill reenactment, September 10, 2006:


October 3, 2006:
Calf Killer River, Sparta, Tennessee


"Sept. 3, [1862]. Moved forward 13 miles arriving at Sparta and encamped on the River Calf-Killer one and one quarter miles from Town. Sept. 4, [1862]. Remained in camp at Sparta. Sent out Battle Flags for the 1st Division Right Wing Army of the Mississippi."

-Marcus Wright, "The March from Chattanooga into Kentucky," DIARY OF BRIGADIER-GENERAL MARCUS J. WRIGHT, C.S.A.


Battle of Perryville National Reenactment, October 7-8, 2006; in the Sesqui-Centennial Anniversary Month of Bishop Leonidas Polk's independently leading Southern Bishops to inaugural meeting in Philadelphia (per National Convention) for establishing his proposed Southern University, Advent Semester:








October 11, 2006:
Chattanooga, Tennessee


November 4, 2006:
Missionary Ridge Reenactment, Sequoyah Caverns, Valley Head, Alabama

December 9, 2006:
On the Domain, Sewanee Village


December 10, 2006:
All Saints' Chapel Narthex at Leonidas Polk's
University of the South; wonderfully courageous Order of Gownsmen member,
serving as a Chapel usher and exhibiting meritorious instinct and exquisite taste,
insisted was example of the University flag, Advent Semester.


"But if we abandon the concept of the fixed cycle and say rather that man lives by his myth, by a projection of ideals, sentiments, and loyalties, which constitute the world of truth- not the world of nature- then the conservation of the pattern becomes obligatory, and the underminers of the faith and the mockers of the vision deserve the obloquy which has traditionally been theirs."

-Richard M. Weaver, SOUTHERN TRADITION AT BAY, 1968, 1971, 1989


June 16, 2007:

General Polk Monument, Pine Mountain, Kennesaw, Georgia


Consecrated Bishop Polk Banner,
St. Hilda's of Whitby Anglican-Catholic Church,
Atlanta, Georgia

Band Drum at St. Hilda's 


"Alabama Valor, Dixie Pride," by Rick Reeves

(Source: civil_war.html)

22d Alabama Infantry's Polk pattern variant, Wither's Division, 1863;

(Source:; viewed 12/11/05)


From; viewed 12/14/05:

Waters' Artillery Battery, Company "B," 2nd Light Artillery Battalion

This command was organized at Mobile on 16 October 1861, with men and officers were from that city mustered in on the 31st. The battery remained in the defence of that city until the spring of 1862 when it moved to Corinth. It was in the Kentucky Campaign losing lightly at Munfordville, and none at Perryville. It suffered severely at Murfreesboro, where it was in Manigault's brigade. At Chickamauga, the battery was engaged without loss; but at Missionary Ridge it lost three guns, and half its force was captured. The other half were distributed in Cobb's (KY) and Mayberry's (TN) battery (January 1864), and served till the end.

Officer: Capt. David Waters (promoted); Lts. William Hamilton; Charles Watkins; Samuel Battle; James M. Muldon (resigned); and Turner.


"The North still sits in Pharisaical judgment upon the South, beating its chest and thanking-Thee-O-Lord-that-I-am-not-as-other-men and imposing its philosophy of living and life upon the South. The South, confused, ill informed because taught by an alien doctrine so long, unconsciously accepts portions of the Northern legend and philosophy; sullenly and without knowing why, it rejects other portions, and withal knows not where to turn."

-Frank Lawrence Owsley, "The Irrepressible Conflict," I'LL TAKE MY STAND: The South and the Agrarian Tradition; Twelve Southerners, including Andrew Lytle, 1930, 1962, 1977


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

Miss Mary Ware's young lady friends at Sewane were touched deeply by her tragedy and struggle. They commemorated her legacy on opportune occasions, in proper times and places, with a ritual for remembering the injustice she endured and by what force she prevailed.

They would take up her favorite Sewanee relic: our bishop's war banner. They often joined to it a cross of resurrection, sometimes of crucifixion, and even a Spiritus Gladius when they held their private ceremonies. They drew power from the same source as she had drawn, and they dedicated their new strength to her name and suffering. By this rite, they made a difference and worked toward real change as they upheld the best of traditions passed along through "generations of the faithful heart."

Their tradition was passed on to a special few, and soon matronly women and little children, her spiritual sisters all, participated and thereby received improving blessings upon their feminine graces.




April 10, 2011:
Fifth Anniversary Commemoration of Leonidas Polk's Bi-Centennial in New Orleans,
fulfillment of John S. Preston's Sewanee Cornerstone Prophecy,
and Founding of the Leonidas Polk Memorial Society at
Christ Church Episcopal Cathedral Shrine;
celebrated at St. Hilda of Whitby, Atlanta, Georgia:


June 16, 2012:
Pine Mountain, Kennesaw, Georgia:


July 5, 2012:
Columbus-Lowndes Public Library, Columbus, Mississippi:


September 24, 2013:
Tennessee Welcome Center and Rest Area, Interstate 75, Chattanooga:


February 17, 2014:
Saint George's Island, Florida;
transitioning from Katabasis to Anabasis,
Olustee-Okolona-Mountain Brook Pilgrimage,
Easter Semester.


February 22, 2014:
Company E, 33rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry
of Wetumpka, Tannehill Ironworks, Alabama


May 17, 2014:
Battle of Resaca 150th Reenactment,
Easter Semester:



May 31, 2014:
Pickett's Mill Battlefield Historic Site


(Source:; viewed 6/10/2014)


June 14, 2014:

Pine Mountain


Mark Kirk House at Old Hardage, Kennessaw;
General Polk's Headquartering and KIA Sesqui-Centennial,
Trinity Term.


(Source:; 7/4/2014)


From; viewed 5/21/2014:

General John Adams' Headquarters Flag

Save Our Flags is proud to announce that our next Confederate flag conservation project is the headquarters flag of Brigadier General John Adams, who was killed at Franklin while attempting to cross the federal works. This flag may be a one-off, and there has been debate as to whether it's a Polk Corps variant, perhaps something based on a Trans-Mississippi pattern, or maybe even a type of Maltese Cross. We would love to hear from anyone who knows more about this flag, its creation, and its use. It's wool and silk, and is a priority of conservation primarily because the silk fringe has begun to deteriorate more than expected over the past decade.


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

He was harassed by the administration because of a few true (but therefore"insensitive") comments he made in class about the trajectory of social change on the Mountain. His response was so spot on, they left him alone for a while and began plotting in secret.

He told them without the slightest hesitation: "Well, let me be the first to tell you a little something about Sewanee that you may not yet know. One of the burdens carried by these families who have been involved with and supportive of The University of the South since the laying of the Cornerstone is finding within ourselves the required toleration of all the new people who come up here and tell us how we are supposed to think about the Mountain's history, which is our history. We're quite practiced at it by now, because newcomers, even when they don't feel at home here, just won't stay away or go back where they came from.

Then he made the point that left them speechless, again, and seething. He said, "But today, as of yet, I've not had my forced exercise in tolerance. That must be why you are here, so please, do tell me how I'm supposed to think about Sewanee today. I am eager for the instruction and my heart anticipates the advice. I just hope it's as good as rules you gave to the Freshmen at your latest required "Building Up a New Sewanee for a Better Tomorrow" seminar. Is it really true you had to prune a few "uncooperative" alumni from the Parents' Council list after that?


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